Constraints on the very high energy emission from BL Lacertae objects

D. Horan, H. M. Badran, I. H. Bond, P. J. Boyle, S. M. Bradbury, J. H. Buckley, D. A. Carter-Lewis, M. Catanese, O. Celik, W. Cui, M. Daniel, M. D'Vali, I. De La Calle Perez, C. Duke, A. Falcone, D. J. Fegan, S. J. Fegan, J. P. Finley, L. F. Fortson, J. A. GaidosS. Gammell, K. Gibbs, G. H. Gillanders, J. Grube, J. Hall, T. A. Hall, D. Hanna, A. M. Hillas, J. Holder, A. Jarvis, M. Jordan, G. E. Kenny, M. Kertzman, D. Kieda, J. Kildea, J. Knapp, K. Kosack, H. Krawczynski, F. Krennrich, M. J. Lang, S. Le Bohec, E. Linton, J. Lloyd-Evans, A. Milovanovic, P. Moriarty, D. Muller, T. Nagai, S. Nolan, R. A. Ong, R. Pallassini, D. Petry, B. Power-Mooney, J. Quinn, M. Quinn, K. Ragan, P. Rebillot, P. T. Reynolds, H. J. Rose, M. Schroedter, G. H. Sembroski, S. P. Swordy, A. Syson, V. V. Vassiliev, S. P. Wakely, G. Walker, T. C. Weekes, J. Zweerink

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Abstract

We present results from observations of 29 BL Lacertae objects, taken with the Whipple Observatory 10 m gamma-ray telescope between 1995 and 2000. The observed objects are mostly at low redshift (z < 0.2), but observations of objects of up to z = 0.444 are also reported. Five of the objects are EGRET sources and two are unconfirmed TeV sources. Three of the confirmed sources of extragalactic TeV gamma rays were originally observed as part of this survey and have been reported elsewhere. No significant excesses are detected from any of the other objects observed, on timescales of days, months, or years. We report 99.9% confidence level flux upper limits for the objects for each observing season. The flux upper limits are typically 20% of the Crab flux, although for some sources, limits as sensitive as 6% of the Crab flux were derived. The results are consistent with the synchrotron self-Compton model predictions considered in this work.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)51-61
Number of pages11
JournalAstrophysical Journal
Volume603
Issue number1 I
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 1 2004

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BL Lacertae objects
crab
crabs
energy
observatory
timescale
gamma ray telescopes
prediction
confidence
observatories
synchrotrons
gamma rays
predictions

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science

Cite this

Horan, D., Badran, H. M., Bond, I. H., Boyle, P. J., Bradbury, S. M., Buckley, J. H., ... Zweerink, J. (2004). Constraints on the very high energy emission from BL Lacertae objects. Astrophysical Journal, 603(1 I), 51-61. https://doi.org/10.1086/381430
Horan, D. ; Badran, H. M. ; Bond, I. H. ; Boyle, P. J. ; Bradbury, S. M. ; Buckley, J. H. ; Carter-Lewis, D. A. ; Catanese, M. ; Celik, O. ; Cui, W. ; Daniel, M. ; D'Vali, M. ; De La Calle Perez, I. ; Duke, C. ; Falcone, A. ; Fegan, D. J. ; Fegan, S. J. ; Finley, J. P. ; Fortson, L. F. ; Gaidos, J. A. ; Gammell, S. ; Gibbs, K. ; Gillanders, G. H. ; Grube, J. ; Hall, J. ; Hall, T. A. ; Hanna, D. ; Hillas, A. M. ; Holder, J. ; Jarvis, A. ; Jordan, M. ; Kenny, G. E. ; Kertzman, M. ; Kieda, D. ; Kildea, J. ; Knapp, J. ; Kosack, K. ; Krawczynski, H. ; Krennrich, F. ; Lang, M. J. ; Le Bohec, S. ; Linton, E. ; Lloyd-Evans, J. ; Milovanovic, A. ; Moriarty, P. ; Muller, D. ; Nagai, T. ; Nolan, S. ; Ong, R. A. ; Pallassini, R. ; Petry, D. ; Power-Mooney, B. ; Quinn, J. ; Quinn, M. ; Ragan, K. ; Rebillot, P. ; Reynolds, P. T. ; Rose, H. J. ; Schroedter, M. ; Sembroski, G. H. ; Swordy, S. P. ; Syson, A. ; Vassiliev, V. V. ; Wakely, S. P. ; Walker, G. ; Weekes, T. C. ; Zweerink, J. / Constraints on the very high energy emission from BL Lacertae objects. In: Astrophysical Journal. 2004 ; Vol. 603, No. 1 I. pp. 51-61.
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title = "Constraints on the very high energy emission from BL Lacertae objects",
abstract = "We present results from observations of 29 BL Lacertae objects, taken with the Whipple Observatory 10 m gamma-ray telescope between 1995 and 2000. The observed objects are mostly at low redshift (z < 0.2), but observations of objects of up to z = 0.444 are also reported. Five of the objects are EGRET sources and two are unconfirmed TeV sources. Three of the confirmed sources of extragalactic TeV gamma rays were originally observed as part of this survey and have been reported elsewhere. No significant excesses are detected from any of the other objects observed, on timescales of days, months, or years. We report 99.9{\%} confidence level flux upper limits for the objects for each observing season. The flux upper limits are typically 20{\%} of the Crab flux, although for some sources, limits as sensitive as 6{\%} of the Crab flux were derived. The results are consistent with the synchrotron self-Compton model predictions considered in this work.",
author = "D. Horan and Badran, {H. M.} and Bond, {I. H.} and Boyle, {P. J.} and Bradbury, {S. M.} and Buckley, {J. H.} and Carter-Lewis, {D. A.} and M. Catanese and O. Celik and W. Cui and M. Daniel and M. D'Vali and {De La Calle Perez}, I. and C. Duke and A. Falcone and Fegan, {D. J.} and Fegan, {S. J.} and Finley, {J. P.} and Fortson, {L. F.} and Gaidos, {J. A.} and S. Gammell and K. Gibbs and Gillanders, {G. H.} and J. Grube and J. Hall and Hall, {T. A.} and D. Hanna and Hillas, {A. M.} and J. Holder and A. Jarvis and M. Jordan and Kenny, {G. E.} and M. Kertzman and D. Kieda and J. Kildea and J. Knapp and K. Kosack and H. Krawczynski and F. Krennrich and Lang, {M. J.} and {Le Bohec}, S. and E. Linton and J. Lloyd-Evans and A. Milovanovic and P. Moriarty and D. Muller and T. Nagai and S. Nolan and Ong, {R. A.} and R. Pallassini and D. Petry and B. Power-Mooney and J. Quinn and M. Quinn and K. Ragan and P. Rebillot and Reynolds, {P. T.} and Rose, {H. J.} and M. Schroedter and Sembroski, {G. H.} and Swordy, {S. P.} and A. Syson and Vassiliev, {V. V.} and Wakely, {S. P.} and G. Walker and Weekes, {T. C.} and J. Zweerink",
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Horan, D, Badran, HM, Bond, IH, Boyle, PJ, Bradbury, SM, Buckley, JH, Carter-Lewis, DA, Catanese, M, Celik, O, Cui, W, Daniel, M, D'Vali, M, De La Calle Perez, I, Duke, C, Falcone, A, Fegan, DJ, Fegan, SJ, Finley, JP, Fortson, LF, Gaidos, JA, Gammell, S, Gibbs, K, Gillanders, GH, Grube, J, Hall, J, Hall, TA, Hanna, D, Hillas, AM, Holder, J, Jarvis, A, Jordan, M, Kenny, GE, Kertzman, M, Kieda, D, Kildea, J, Knapp, J, Kosack, K, Krawczynski, H, Krennrich, F, Lang, MJ, Le Bohec, S, Linton, E, Lloyd-Evans, J, Milovanovic, A, Moriarty, P, Muller, D, Nagai, T, Nolan, S, Ong, RA, Pallassini, R, Petry, D, Power-Mooney, B, Quinn, J, Quinn, M, Ragan, K, Rebillot, P, Reynolds, PT, Rose, HJ, Schroedter, M, Sembroski, GH, Swordy, SP, Syson, A, Vassiliev, VV, Wakely, SP, Walker, G, Weekes, TC & Zweerink, J 2004, 'Constraints on the very high energy emission from BL Lacertae objects', Astrophysical Journal, vol. 603, no. 1 I, pp. 51-61. https://doi.org/10.1086/381430

Constraints on the very high energy emission from BL Lacertae objects. / Horan, D.; Badran, H. M.; Bond, I. H.; Boyle, P. J.; Bradbury, S. M.; Buckley, J. H.; Carter-Lewis, D. A.; Catanese, M.; Celik, O.; Cui, W.; Daniel, M.; D'Vali, M.; De La Calle Perez, I.; Duke, C.; Falcone, A.; Fegan, D. J.; Fegan, S. J.; Finley, J. P.; Fortson, L. F.; Gaidos, J. A.; Gammell, S.; Gibbs, K.; Gillanders, G. H.; Grube, J.; Hall, J.; Hall, T. A.; Hanna, D.; Hillas, A. M.; Holder, J.; Jarvis, A.; Jordan, M.; Kenny, G. E.; Kertzman, M.; Kieda, D.; Kildea, J.; Knapp, J.; Kosack, K.; Krawczynski, H.; Krennrich, F.; Lang, M. J.; Le Bohec, S.; Linton, E.; Lloyd-Evans, J.; Milovanovic, A.; Moriarty, P.; Muller, D.; Nagai, T.; Nolan, S.; Ong, R. A.; Pallassini, R.; Petry, D.; Power-Mooney, B.; Quinn, J.; Quinn, M.; Ragan, K.; Rebillot, P.; Reynolds, P. T.; Rose, H. J.; Schroedter, M.; Sembroski, G. H.; Swordy, S. P.; Syson, A.; Vassiliev, V. V.; Wakely, S. P.; Walker, G.; Weekes, T. C.; Zweerink, J.

In: Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 603, No. 1 I, 01.03.2004, p. 51-61.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Constraints on the very high energy emission from BL Lacertae objects

AU - Horan, D.

AU - Badran, H. M.

AU - Bond, I. H.

AU - Boyle, P. J.

AU - Bradbury, S. M.

AU - Buckley, J. H.

AU - Carter-Lewis, D. A.

AU - Catanese, M.

AU - Celik, O.

AU - Cui, W.

AU - Daniel, M.

AU - D'Vali, M.

AU - De La Calle Perez, I.

AU - Duke, C.

AU - Falcone, A.

AU - Fegan, D. J.

AU - Fegan, S. J.

AU - Finley, J. P.

AU - Fortson, L. F.

AU - Gaidos, J. A.

AU - Gammell, S.

AU - Gibbs, K.

AU - Gillanders, G. H.

AU - Grube, J.

AU - Hall, J.

AU - Hall, T. A.

AU - Hanna, D.

AU - Hillas, A. M.

AU - Holder, J.

AU - Jarvis, A.

AU - Jordan, M.

AU - Kenny, G. E.

AU - Kertzman, M.

AU - Kieda, D.

AU - Kildea, J.

AU - Knapp, J.

AU - Kosack, K.

AU - Krawczynski, H.

AU - Krennrich, F.

AU - Lang, M. J.

AU - Le Bohec, S.

AU - Linton, E.

AU - Lloyd-Evans, J.

AU - Milovanovic, A.

AU - Moriarty, P.

AU - Muller, D.

AU - Nagai, T.

AU - Nolan, S.

AU - Ong, R. A.

AU - Pallassini, R.

AU - Petry, D.

AU - Power-Mooney, B.

AU - Quinn, J.

AU - Quinn, M.

AU - Ragan, K.

AU - Rebillot, P.

AU - Reynolds, P. T.

AU - Rose, H. J.

AU - Schroedter, M.

AU - Sembroski, G. H.

AU - Swordy, S. P.

AU - Syson, A.

AU - Vassiliev, V. V.

AU - Wakely, S. P.

AU - Walker, G.

AU - Weekes, T. C.

AU - Zweerink, J.

PY - 2004/3/1

Y1 - 2004/3/1

N2 - We present results from observations of 29 BL Lacertae objects, taken with the Whipple Observatory 10 m gamma-ray telescope between 1995 and 2000. The observed objects are mostly at low redshift (z < 0.2), but observations of objects of up to z = 0.444 are also reported. Five of the objects are EGRET sources and two are unconfirmed TeV sources. Three of the confirmed sources of extragalactic TeV gamma rays were originally observed as part of this survey and have been reported elsewhere. No significant excesses are detected from any of the other objects observed, on timescales of days, months, or years. We report 99.9% confidence level flux upper limits for the objects for each observing season. The flux upper limits are typically 20% of the Crab flux, although for some sources, limits as sensitive as 6% of the Crab flux were derived. The results are consistent with the synchrotron self-Compton model predictions considered in this work.

AB - We present results from observations of 29 BL Lacertae objects, taken with the Whipple Observatory 10 m gamma-ray telescope between 1995 and 2000. The observed objects are mostly at low redshift (z < 0.2), but observations of objects of up to z = 0.444 are also reported. Five of the objects are EGRET sources and two are unconfirmed TeV sources. Three of the confirmed sources of extragalactic TeV gamma rays were originally observed as part of this survey and have been reported elsewhere. No significant excesses are detected from any of the other objects observed, on timescales of days, months, or years. We report 99.9% confidence level flux upper limits for the objects for each observing season. The flux upper limits are typically 20% of the Crab flux, although for some sources, limits as sensitive as 6% of the Crab flux were derived. The results are consistent with the synchrotron self-Compton model predictions considered in this work.

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DO - 10.1086/381430

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JO - Astrophysical Journal

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Horan D, Badran HM, Bond IH, Boyle PJ, Bradbury SM, Buckley JH et al. Constraints on the very high energy emission from BL Lacertae objects. Astrophysical Journal. 2004 Mar 1;603(1 I):51-61. https://doi.org/10.1086/381430