The goal of this study was to further the understanding of leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) constraints across different stages of LTPA as described by the Transtheoretical Model (TTM). Data were collected from female adults (n = 1257) who resided in a metropolitan area in Eastern China using self-administered questionnaires. To examine the potential differences among three types of constraints (e.g. intrapersonal, interpersonal, and structural) within and across each of the five stages of LTPA, a series of ANOVA tests with Scheffe’s post hoc analyses were conducted. The influence of intrapersonal constraints peaked at the precontemplation and contemplation stages, while the influence of interpersonal and structural constraints declined in the maintenance stage. In the precontemplation stage, the intrapersonal constraints were more salient than interpersonal constraints. In the later three stages (e.g. preparation, action, and maintenance), structural constraints were the most salient physical activity barriers. These new findings suggest that the effects of LTPA constraints on TTM stages may be context (e.g. metropolitan China) and population (e.g. females) specific. The study findings can inform future stage-based LTPA constraint research among targeted audiences in different cultures/countries and may inform interventions to promote physical activity levels for Asian women at different stages of participation.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Social Psychology
- Cultural Studies
- Tourism, Leisure and Hospitality Management