Contact doping with sub-monolayers of strong polyelectrolytes for organic photovoltaics

Gopal K. Mor, David Jones, Thinh P. Le, Zhengrong Shang, Patrick J. Weathers, Megumi K.B. Woltermann, Kiarash Vakhshouri, Bryan P. Williams, Sarah A. Tohran, Tomonori Saito, Rafael Verduzco, Alberto Salleo, Michael Anthony Hickner, Enrique Daniel Gomez

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

18 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Barriers to charge transfer at electrode-semiconductor contacts are ubiquitous and limit the applicability of organic semiconductors in electronic devices. Molecular or ionic doping near contacts can alleviate charge injection or extraction problems by enabling charge tunneling through contact barriers, but the soft nature of organic materials allows for small molecule dopants to diffuse and migrate, degrading the performance of the device and limiting effective interfacial doping. Here, it is demonstrated that contact doping in organic electronics is possible through ionic polymer dopants, which resist diffusion or migration due to their large size. Sub-monolayer deposition of non-conjugated strong polyelectrolytes, e.g., sulfonated poly(sulfone)s, at the anode-semiconductor interface of organic photovoltaics enables effi cient hole extraction at the anode. The performance of contact-doped organic photovoltaics nearly matches the performance of devices composed of traditional hole transport layers such as poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS). The degree of sulfonation of the dopant polymer and the thickness of the ionic dopant layer is shown to be critical for optimizing doping and the effi ciency of the device.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number1400439
JournalAdvanced Energy Materials
Volume4
Issue number13
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 1 2014

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Polyelectrolytes
Monolayers
Doping (additives)
Anodes
Polymers
Semiconductor materials
Sulfonation
Charge injection
Semiconducting organic compounds
Styrene
Charge transfer
Electronic equipment
Electrodes
Molecules

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Materials Science(all)

Cite this

Mor, G. K., Jones, D., Le, T. P., Shang, Z., Weathers, P. J., Woltermann, M. K. B., ... Gomez, E. D. (2014). Contact doping with sub-monolayers of strong polyelectrolytes for organic photovoltaics. Advanced Energy Materials, 4(13), [1400439]. https://doi.org/10.1002/aenm.201400439
Mor, Gopal K. ; Jones, David ; Le, Thinh P. ; Shang, Zhengrong ; Weathers, Patrick J. ; Woltermann, Megumi K.B. ; Vakhshouri, Kiarash ; Williams, Bryan P. ; Tohran, Sarah A. ; Saito, Tomonori ; Verduzco, Rafael ; Salleo, Alberto ; Hickner, Michael Anthony ; Gomez, Enrique Daniel. / Contact doping with sub-monolayers of strong polyelectrolytes for organic photovoltaics. In: Advanced Energy Materials. 2014 ; Vol. 4, No. 13.
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abstract = "Barriers to charge transfer at electrode-semiconductor contacts are ubiquitous and limit the applicability of organic semiconductors in electronic devices. Molecular or ionic doping near contacts can alleviate charge injection or extraction problems by enabling charge tunneling through contact barriers, but the soft nature of organic materials allows for small molecule dopants to diffuse and migrate, degrading the performance of the device and limiting effective interfacial doping. Here, it is demonstrated that contact doping in organic electronics is possible through ionic polymer dopants, which resist diffusion or migration due to their large size. Sub-monolayer deposition of non-conjugated strong polyelectrolytes, e.g., sulfonated poly(sulfone)s, at the anode-semiconductor interface of organic photovoltaics enables effi cient hole extraction at the anode. The performance of contact-doped organic photovoltaics nearly matches the performance of devices composed of traditional hole transport layers such as poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS). The degree of sulfonation of the dopant polymer and the thickness of the ionic dopant layer is shown to be critical for optimizing doping and the effi ciency of the device.",
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Mor, GK, Jones, D, Le, TP, Shang, Z, Weathers, PJ, Woltermann, MKB, Vakhshouri, K, Williams, BP, Tohran, SA, Saito, T, Verduzco, R, Salleo, A, Hickner, MA & Gomez, ED 2014, 'Contact doping with sub-monolayers of strong polyelectrolytes for organic photovoltaics', Advanced Energy Materials, vol. 4, no. 13, 1400439. https://doi.org/10.1002/aenm.201400439

Contact doping with sub-monolayers of strong polyelectrolytes for organic photovoltaics. / Mor, Gopal K.; Jones, David; Le, Thinh P.; Shang, Zhengrong; Weathers, Patrick J.; Woltermann, Megumi K.B.; Vakhshouri, Kiarash; Williams, Bryan P.; Tohran, Sarah A.; Saito, Tomonori; Verduzco, Rafael; Salleo, Alberto; Hickner, Michael Anthony; Gomez, Enrique Daniel.

In: Advanced Energy Materials, Vol. 4, No. 13, 1400439, 01.09.2014.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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T1 - Contact doping with sub-monolayers of strong polyelectrolytes for organic photovoltaics

AU - Mor, Gopal K.

AU - Jones, David

AU - Le, Thinh P.

AU - Shang, Zhengrong

AU - Weathers, Patrick J.

AU - Woltermann, Megumi K.B.

AU - Vakhshouri, Kiarash

AU - Williams, Bryan P.

AU - Tohran, Sarah A.

AU - Saito, Tomonori

AU - Verduzco, Rafael

AU - Salleo, Alberto

AU - Hickner, Michael Anthony

AU - Gomez, Enrique Daniel

PY - 2014/9/1

Y1 - 2014/9/1

N2 - Barriers to charge transfer at electrode-semiconductor contacts are ubiquitous and limit the applicability of organic semiconductors in electronic devices. Molecular or ionic doping near contacts can alleviate charge injection or extraction problems by enabling charge tunneling through contact barriers, but the soft nature of organic materials allows for small molecule dopants to diffuse and migrate, degrading the performance of the device and limiting effective interfacial doping. Here, it is demonstrated that contact doping in organic electronics is possible through ionic polymer dopants, which resist diffusion or migration due to their large size. Sub-monolayer deposition of non-conjugated strong polyelectrolytes, e.g., sulfonated poly(sulfone)s, at the anode-semiconductor interface of organic photovoltaics enables effi cient hole extraction at the anode. The performance of contact-doped organic photovoltaics nearly matches the performance of devices composed of traditional hole transport layers such as poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS). The degree of sulfonation of the dopant polymer and the thickness of the ionic dopant layer is shown to be critical for optimizing doping and the effi ciency of the device.

AB - Barriers to charge transfer at electrode-semiconductor contacts are ubiquitous and limit the applicability of organic semiconductors in electronic devices. Molecular or ionic doping near contacts can alleviate charge injection or extraction problems by enabling charge tunneling through contact barriers, but the soft nature of organic materials allows for small molecule dopants to diffuse and migrate, degrading the performance of the device and limiting effective interfacial doping. Here, it is demonstrated that contact doping in organic electronics is possible through ionic polymer dopants, which resist diffusion or migration due to their large size. Sub-monolayer deposition of non-conjugated strong polyelectrolytes, e.g., sulfonated poly(sulfone)s, at the anode-semiconductor interface of organic photovoltaics enables effi cient hole extraction at the anode. The performance of contact-doped organic photovoltaics nearly matches the performance of devices composed of traditional hole transport layers such as poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS). The degree of sulfonation of the dopant polymer and the thickness of the ionic dopant layer is shown to be critical for optimizing doping and the effi ciency of the device.

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U2 - 10.1002/aenm.201400439

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