Context Matters: The Benefits and Costs of Expressing Positive Emotion Among Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse

George A. Bonanno, Deniz M. Colak, Dacher Keltner, Michelle N. Shiota, Anthony Papa, Jennie G. Noll, Frank W. Putnam, Penelope K. Trickett

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

42 Scopus citations


Positive emotions promote adjustment to aversive life events. However, evolutionary theory and empirical research on trauma disclosure suggest that in the context of stigmatized events, expressing positive emotions might incur social costs. To test this thesis, the authors coded genuine (Duchenne) smiling and laughter and also non-Duchenne smiling from videotapes of late-adolescent and young adult women, approximately half with documented histories of childhood sexual abuse (CSA), as they described the most distressing event of their lives. Consistent with previous studies, genuine positive emotional expression was generally associated with better social adjustment two years later. However, as anticipated, CSA survivors who expressed positive emotion in the context of describing a past CSA experience had poorer long-term social adjustment, whereas CSA survivors who expressed positive emotion while describing a nonabuse experience had improved social adjustment. These findings suggest that the benefits of positive emotional expression may often be context specific.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)824-837
Number of pages14
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Nov 1 2007


All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Psychology(all)

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