Contributions of active and passive toe flexion to forefoot loading

Andrew J. Hamel, Seth W. Donahue, Neil Sharkey

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

31 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Toe flexion during terminal stance has an active component contributed by the muscles that flex the toes and a passive component contributed by the plantar fascia. This study examined the relative importance of these two mechanisms in maintaining proper force sharing between the toes and forefoot. Thirteen nonpaired cadaver feet were tested in a dynamic gait stimulator, which reproduces the kinematics and kinetics of the foot, ankle, and tibia by applying physiologic muscle forces and proximal tibial kinematics. The distribution of plantar pressure beneath the foot was measured at the terminal stance phase of gait under normal extrinsic muscle activity with an intact plantar fascia, in the absence of extrinsic toe flexor activity (no flexor hallucis longus or flexor digitorum longus) with an intact plantar fascia, and after complete fasciotomy with normal extrinsic toe flexor activity. In the absence of the toe flexor muscles or after plantar fasciotomy the contact area decreased beneath the toes and contact force shifted from the toes to the metatarsal heads. In addition, pressure distribution beneath the metatarsal heads after fasciotomy shifted laterally and posteriorly, indicating that the plantar fascia enables more efficient force transmission through the high gear axis during locomotion. The plantar fascia enables the toes to provide plantar-directed force and bear high loads during push-off.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)326-334
Number of pages9
JournalClinical Orthopaedics and Related Research
Issue number393
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2001

Fingerprint

Toes
Fascia
Foot
Muscles
Metatarsal Bones
Gait
Biomechanical Phenomena
Pressure
Locomotion
Tibia
Cadaver
Ankle

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Surgery
  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine

Cite this

@article{be76085cc76e4a15a88e445f6d0b6932,
title = "Contributions of active and passive toe flexion to forefoot loading",
abstract = "Toe flexion during terminal stance has an active component contributed by the muscles that flex the toes and a passive component contributed by the plantar fascia. This study examined the relative importance of these two mechanisms in maintaining proper force sharing between the toes and forefoot. Thirteen nonpaired cadaver feet were tested in a dynamic gait stimulator, which reproduces the kinematics and kinetics of the foot, ankle, and tibia by applying physiologic muscle forces and proximal tibial kinematics. The distribution of plantar pressure beneath the foot was measured at the terminal stance phase of gait under normal extrinsic muscle activity with an intact plantar fascia, in the absence of extrinsic toe flexor activity (no flexor hallucis longus or flexor digitorum longus) with an intact plantar fascia, and after complete fasciotomy with normal extrinsic toe flexor activity. In the absence of the toe flexor muscles or after plantar fasciotomy the contact area decreased beneath the toes and contact force shifted from the toes to the metatarsal heads. In addition, pressure distribution beneath the metatarsal heads after fasciotomy shifted laterally and posteriorly, indicating that the plantar fascia enables more efficient force transmission through the high gear axis during locomotion. The plantar fascia enables the toes to provide plantar-directed force and bear high loads during push-off.",
author = "Hamel, {Andrew J.} and Donahue, {Seth W.} and Neil Sharkey",
year = "2001",
month = "1",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1097/00003086-200112000-00038",
language = "English (US)",
pages = "326--334",
journal = "Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research",
issn = "0009-921X",
publisher = "Springer New York",
number = "393",

}

Contributions of active and passive toe flexion to forefoot loading. / Hamel, Andrew J.; Donahue, Seth W.; Sharkey, Neil.

In: Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research, No. 393, 01.01.2001, p. 326-334.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Contributions of active and passive toe flexion to forefoot loading

AU - Hamel, Andrew J.

AU - Donahue, Seth W.

AU - Sharkey, Neil

PY - 2001/1/1

Y1 - 2001/1/1

N2 - Toe flexion during terminal stance has an active component contributed by the muscles that flex the toes and a passive component contributed by the plantar fascia. This study examined the relative importance of these two mechanisms in maintaining proper force sharing between the toes and forefoot. Thirteen nonpaired cadaver feet were tested in a dynamic gait stimulator, which reproduces the kinematics and kinetics of the foot, ankle, and tibia by applying physiologic muscle forces and proximal tibial kinematics. The distribution of plantar pressure beneath the foot was measured at the terminal stance phase of gait under normal extrinsic muscle activity with an intact plantar fascia, in the absence of extrinsic toe flexor activity (no flexor hallucis longus or flexor digitorum longus) with an intact plantar fascia, and after complete fasciotomy with normal extrinsic toe flexor activity. In the absence of the toe flexor muscles or after plantar fasciotomy the contact area decreased beneath the toes and contact force shifted from the toes to the metatarsal heads. In addition, pressure distribution beneath the metatarsal heads after fasciotomy shifted laterally and posteriorly, indicating that the plantar fascia enables more efficient force transmission through the high gear axis during locomotion. The plantar fascia enables the toes to provide plantar-directed force and bear high loads during push-off.

AB - Toe flexion during terminal stance has an active component contributed by the muscles that flex the toes and a passive component contributed by the plantar fascia. This study examined the relative importance of these two mechanisms in maintaining proper force sharing between the toes and forefoot. Thirteen nonpaired cadaver feet were tested in a dynamic gait stimulator, which reproduces the kinematics and kinetics of the foot, ankle, and tibia by applying physiologic muscle forces and proximal tibial kinematics. The distribution of plantar pressure beneath the foot was measured at the terminal stance phase of gait under normal extrinsic muscle activity with an intact plantar fascia, in the absence of extrinsic toe flexor activity (no flexor hallucis longus or flexor digitorum longus) with an intact plantar fascia, and after complete fasciotomy with normal extrinsic toe flexor activity. In the absence of the toe flexor muscles or after plantar fasciotomy the contact area decreased beneath the toes and contact force shifted from the toes to the metatarsal heads. In addition, pressure distribution beneath the metatarsal heads after fasciotomy shifted laterally and posteriorly, indicating that the plantar fascia enables more efficient force transmission through the high gear axis during locomotion. The plantar fascia enables the toes to provide plantar-directed force and bear high loads during push-off.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0035192209&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0035192209&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1097/00003086-200112000-00038

DO - 10.1097/00003086-200112000-00038

M3 - Article

C2 - 11764366

AN - SCOPUS:0035192209

SP - 326

EP - 334

JO - Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research

JF - Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research

SN - 0009-921X

IS - 393

ER -