Non-myeloablative conditioning has extended the use of allogeneic haematopoietic transplant to many previously ineligible patients. We added the immunosuppressive and antitumour agent sirolimus (rapamycin) to an established transplant regimen of fludarabine 25 mg/m2 days -7 through -3 and cyclophosphamide 1000 mg/m days -7 and -6, with tacrolimus and methotrexate immunoprophyllaxis. A total of 23 patients with acute myelogenous leukaemia (AML) were treated, with a median age of 59 years (range: 28-72) at transplant. Only seven patients in total were in complete remission prior to transplantation. Nine patients were in chemotherapy-refractory progression and seven were primarily refractory to induction therapy. Six patients received matched sibling, 11 unrelated donor, 1-5/6 matched and five haploidentical (haplo - three of six or four of six matched) transplants. The haplo-recipients also received antithymocyte globulin, all patients engrafted. Only two, both recipients of haploidentical cells, have died from transplant-related causes. Twelve of 23 patients survived at 198-1162-d post-transplant (median 578). Four of 12 survivors relapsed at 83, 88, 243 and 508 d and three were in remission after chemotherapy and donor lymphocyte infusion. Although follow up is short, this data suggests that non-myeloablative haematopoietic cell transplantation with sirolimus (rapamycin)-based immunosuppression may provide disease control over several years in some patients with advanced and poor prognosis AML.
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