Two-dimensional (2D) transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) exhibit exciting properties and versatile material chemistry that are promising for device miniaturization, energy, quantum information science, and optoelectronics. Their outstanding structural stability permits the introduction of various foreign dopants that can modulate their optical and electronic properties and induce phase transitions, thereby adding new functionalities such as magnetism, ferroelectricity, and quantum states. To accelerate their technological readiness, it is essential to develop controllable synthesis and processing techniques to precisely engineer the compositions and phases of 2D TMDs. While most reviews emphasize properties and applications of doped TMDs, here, recent progress on thin-film synthesis and processing techniques that show excellent controllability for substitutional doping of 2D TMDs are reported. These techniques are categorized into bottom–up methods that grow doped samples on substrates directly and top–down methods that use energetic sources to implant dopants into existing 2D crystals. The doped and alloyed variants from Group VI TMDs will be at the center of technical discussions, as they are expected to play essential roles in next-generation optoelectronic applications. Theoretical backgrounds based on first principles calculations will precede the technical discussions to help the reader understand each element's likelihood of substitutional doping and the expected impact on the material properties.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Medicine (miscellaneous)
- Chemical Engineering(all)
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology (miscellaneous)
- Materials Science(all)
- Physics and Astronomy(all)