Controlling polymorphism in poly(3-hexylthiophene) through addition of ferrocene for enhanced charge mobilities in thin-film transistors

Bron H. Smith, Michael B. Clark, Hao Kuang, Christopher Grieco, Alec V. Larsen, Chenhui Zhu, Cheng Wang, Alexander Hexemer, John B. Asbury, Michael John Janik, Enrique Daniel Gomez

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

15 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Crystalline organic molecules often exhibit the ability to assemble into multiple crystal structures depending on the processing conditions. Exploiting this polymorphism to optimize molecular orbital overlap between adjacent molecules in the unit lattice is an effective method for improving charge transport within the material. In this study, grazing incident X-ray diffraction was employed to demonstrate the formation of tighter π-π stacking poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) polymorphs in films spin coated from ferrocene-containing solutions. As a result, the addition of ferrocene to casting solutions yields thin-film transistors which exhibit approximately three times higher source-drain currents and charge mobilities than neat polymer devices. Nevertheless, XPS depth profiling and NMR analyses of the active layer reveal that all ferrocene is removed during the spin coating process, which may be an essential factor to achieve high mobilities. Such insights gleaned from ferrocene/poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) mixtures can serve as a template for selection and optimization of other small molecule/polymer systems with greater baseline charge mobilities.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)542-551
Number of pages10
JournalAdvanced Functional Materials
Volume25
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 28 2015

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polymorphism
Thin film transistors
Polymorphism
transistors
Molecules
thin films
molecules
Polymers
Depth profiling
Drain current
polymers
Spin coating
grazing
Molecular orbitals
coating
Charge transfer
molecular orbitals
Casting
templates
X ray photoelectron spectroscopy

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Chemistry(all)
  • Materials Science(all)
  • Condensed Matter Physics

Cite this

Smith, Bron H. ; Clark, Michael B. ; Kuang, Hao ; Grieco, Christopher ; Larsen, Alec V. ; Zhu, Chenhui ; Wang, Cheng ; Hexemer, Alexander ; Asbury, John B. ; Janik, Michael John ; Gomez, Enrique Daniel. / Controlling polymorphism in poly(3-hexylthiophene) through addition of ferrocene for enhanced charge mobilities in thin-film transistors. In: Advanced Functional Materials. 2015 ; Vol. 25, No. 4. pp. 542-551.
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Controlling polymorphism in poly(3-hexylthiophene) through addition of ferrocene for enhanced charge mobilities in thin-film transistors. / Smith, Bron H.; Clark, Michael B.; Kuang, Hao; Grieco, Christopher; Larsen, Alec V.; Zhu, Chenhui; Wang, Cheng; Hexemer, Alexander; Asbury, John B.; Janik, Michael John; Gomez, Enrique Daniel.

In: Advanced Functional Materials, Vol. 25, No. 4, 28.01.2015, p. 542-551.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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AU - Larsen, Alec V.

AU - Zhu, Chenhui

AU - Wang, Cheng

AU - Hexemer, Alexander

AU - Asbury, John B.

AU - Janik, Michael John

AU - Gomez, Enrique Daniel

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N2 - Crystalline organic molecules often exhibit the ability to assemble into multiple crystal structures depending on the processing conditions. Exploiting this polymorphism to optimize molecular orbital overlap between adjacent molecules in the unit lattice is an effective method for improving charge transport within the material. In this study, grazing incident X-ray diffraction was employed to demonstrate the formation of tighter π-π stacking poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) polymorphs in films spin coated from ferrocene-containing solutions. As a result, the addition of ferrocene to casting solutions yields thin-film transistors which exhibit approximately three times higher source-drain currents and charge mobilities than neat polymer devices. Nevertheless, XPS depth profiling and NMR analyses of the active layer reveal that all ferrocene is removed during the spin coating process, which may be an essential factor to achieve high mobilities. Such insights gleaned from ferrocene/poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) mixtures can serve as a template for selection and optimization of other small molecule/polymer systems with greater baseline charge mobilities.

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