Convex rank tests are partitions of the symmetric group which have desirable geometric properties. The statistical tests defined by such partitions involve counting all permutations in the equivalence classes. Each class consists of the linear extensions of a partially ordered set specified by data. Our methods refine existing rank tests of nonparametric statistics, such as the sign test and the runs test, and are useful for exploratory anal ysis of ordinal data. We establish a bijection between convex rank tests and probabilistic conditional independence structures known as semigraphoids. The subclass of submodular rank tests is derived from faces of the cone of submodular functions or from Minkowski summands of the permutohedro n. We enumerate all small instances of such rank tests. Of particular interest are graphical tests, which correspond to both graphical models and to graph associahedra.
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