Coping with terrorism: Age and gender differences in effortful and involuntary responses to september 11th

Martha E. Wadsworth, Gretchen R. Gudmundsen, Tali Raviv, Jarl A. Ahlkvist, Daniel N. McIntosh, Galena H. Kline, Jacqueline Rea, Rebecca A. Burwell

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

54 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

This study examined age and gender differences and similarities in stress responses to September 11th. Adolescents, young adults, and adults reported using a variety of strategies to cope with the terrorist attacks including acceptance, positive thinking, and emotional expression. In addition, involuntary stress responses such as physiological arousal, rumination, and emotional numbing were common. A number of age trends emerged, showing increases across the three groups in emotion-based coping strategies and decreases in some forms of disengagement coping. In addition, rumination decreased with age, whereas intrusive thoughts were more prevalent in the older groups. Females in both the adolescent and young adult samples reported using emotion-based strategies more than males, and these strategies were related to better functioning for females only. In addition, males reported higher levels of disengagement responses; and these responses were related to worse functioning, but only for females. The utility of using the Responses to Stress Questionnaire (Connor-Smith, Compas, Wadsworth, Thomsen, & Saltzman, 2000) to examine coping and involuntary stress responses in reference to terrorism and across a wide age range was examined. Implications for coping theory and empirical research are explored.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)143-157
Number of pages15
JournalApplied Developmental Science
Volume8
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 1 2004

Fingerprint

Terrorism
age difference
gender-specific factors
terrorism
coping
Young Adult
disengagement
Emotions
young adult
Empirical Research
emotion
adolescent
Arousal
empirical research
Group
acceptance
questionnaire
trend

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Developmental and Educational Psychology
  • Applied Psychology
  • Life-span and Life-course Studies

Cite this

Wadsworth, Martha E. ; Gudmundsen, Gretchen R. ; Raviv, Tali ; Ahlkvist, Jarl A. ; McIntosh, Daniel N. ; Kline, Galena H. ; Rea, Jacqueline ; Burwell, Rebecca A. / Coping with terrorism : Age and gender differences in effortful and involuntary responses to september 11th. In: Applied Developmental Science. 2004 ; Vol. 8, No. 3. pp. 143-157.
@article{9f34259775514b2196c6750c0696556e,
title = "Coping with terrorism: Age and gender differences in effortful and involuntary responses to september 11th",
abstract = "This study examined age and gender differences and similarities in stress responses to September 11th. Adolescents, young adults, and adults reported using a variety of strategies to cope with the terrorist attacks including acceptance, positive thinking, and emotional expression. In addition, involuntary stress responses such as physiological arousal, rumination, and emotional numbing were common. A number of age trends emerged, showing increases across the three groups in emotion-based coping strategies and decreases in some forms of disengagement coping. In addition, rumination decreased with age, whereas intrusive thoughts were more prevalent in the older groups. Females in both the adolescent and young adult samples reported using emotion-based strategies more than males, and these strategies were related to better functioning for females only. In addition, males reported higher levels of disengagement responses; and these responses were related to worse functioning, but only for females. The utility of using the Responses to Stress Questionnaire (Connor-Smith, Compas, Wadsworth, Thomsen, & Saltzman, 2000) to examine coping and involuntary stress responses in reference to terrorism and across a wide age range was examined. Implications for coping theory and empirical research are explored.",
author = "Wadsworth, {Martha E.} and Gudmundsen, {Gretchen R.} and Tali Raviv and Ahlkvist, {Jarl A.} and McIntosh, {Daniel N.} and Kline, {Galena H.} and Jacqueline Rea and Burwell, {Rebecca A.}",
year = "2004",
month = "7",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1207/s1532480xads0803_4",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "8",
pages = "143--157",
journal = "Applied Developmental Science",
issn = "1088-8691",
publisher = "Psychology Press Ltd",
number = "3",

}

Wadsworth, ME, Gudmundsen, GR, Raviv, T, Ahlkvist, JA, McIntosh, DN, Kline, GH, Rea, J & Burwell, RA 2004, 'Coping with terrorism: Age and gender differences in effortful and involuntary responses to september 11th', Applied Developmental Science, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 143-157. https://doi.org/10.1207/s1532480xads0803_4

Coping with terrorism : Age and gender differences in effortful and involuntary responses to september 11th. / Wadsworth, Martha E.; Gudmundsen, Gretchen R.; Raviv, Tali; Ahlkvist, Jarl A.; McIntosh, Daniel N.; Kline, Galena H.; Rea, Jacqueline; Burwell, Rebecca A.

In: Applied Developmental Science, Vol. 8, No. 3, 01.07.2004, p. 143-157.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Coping with terrorism

T2 - Age and gender differences in effortful and involuntary responses to september 11th

AU - Wadsworth, Martha E.

AU - Gudmundsen, Gretchen R.

AU - Raviv, Tali

AU - Ahlkvist, Jarl A.

AU - McIntosh, Daniel N.

AU - Kline, Galena H.

AU - Rea, Jacqueline

AU - Burwell, Rebecca A.

PY - 2004/7/1

Y1 - 2004/7/1

N2 - This study examined age and gender differences and similarities in stress responses to September 11th. Adolescents, young adults, and adults reported using a variety of strategies to cope with the terrorist attacks including acceptance, positive thinking, and emotional expression. In addition, involuntary stress responses such as physiological arousal, rumination, and emotional numbing were common. A number of age trends emerged, showing increases across the three groups in emotion-based coping strategies and decreases in some forms of disengagement coping. In addition, rumination decreased with age, whereas intrusive thoughts were more prevalent in the older groups. Females in both the adolescent and young adult samples reported using emotion-based strategies more than males, and these strategies were related to better functioning for females only. In addition, males reported higher levels of disengagement responses; and these responses were related to worse functioning, but only for females. The utility of using the Responses to Stress Questionnaire (Connor-Smith, Compas, Wadsworth, Thomsen, & Saltzman, 2000) to examine coping and involuntary stress responses in reference to terrorism and across a wide age range was examined. Implications for coping theory and empirical research are explored.

AB - This study examined age and gender differences and similarities in stress responses to September 11th. Adolescents, young adults, and adults reported using a variety of strategies to cope with the terrorist attacks including acceptance, positive thinking, and emotional expression. In addition, involuntary stress responses such as physiological arousal, rumination, and emotional numbing were common. A number of age trends emerged, showing increases across the three groups in emotion-based coping strategies and decreases in some forms of disengagement coping. In addition, rumination decreased with age, whereas intrusive thoughts were more prevalent in the older groups. Females in both the adolescent and young adult samples reported using emotion-based strategies more than males, and these strategies were related to better functioning for females only. In addition, males reported higher levels of disengagement responses; and these responses were related to worse functioning, but only for females. The utility of using the Responses to Stress Questionnaire (Connor-Smith, Compas, Wadsworth, Thomsen, & Saltzman, 2000) to examine coping and involuntary stress responses in reference to terrorism and across a wide age range was examined. Implications for coping theory and empirical research are explored.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=33947259097&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=33947259097&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1207/s1532480xads0803_4

DO - 10.1207/s1532480xads0803_4

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:33947259097

VL - 8

SP - 143

EP - 157

JO - Applied Developmental Science

JF - Applied Developmental Science

SN - 1088-8691

IS - 3

ER -