Corn stover harvest N and energy budgets in central Iowa

R. W. Malone, S. Herbstritt, L. Ma, Thomas Lehman Richard, Fnu Cibin Raj, P. W. Gassman, H. H. Zhang, D. L. Karlen, J. L. Hatfield, J. F. Obrycki, M. J. Helmers, D. B. Jaynes, T. C. Kaspar, T. B. Parkin, Q. X. Fang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Harvesting corn stover removes N from the fields, but its effect on subsurface drainage and other N losses is uncertain. We used the Root Zone Water Quality Model (RZWQM) to examine N losses with 0 (NRR) or 50% (RR) corn residue removal within a corn and soybean rotation over a 10-yr period. In general, all simulations used the same pre-plant or post-emergence N fertilizer rate (200 kg ha −1 yr −1 ). Simulated annual corn yields averaged 10.7 Mg ha −1 for the post emergence applications (NRRpost and RRpost), and 9.5 and 9.4 Mg ha −1 yr −1 for NRRpre and RRpre. Average total N input during corn years was 19.3 kg N ha −1 greater for NRRpre compared to RRpre due to additional N in surface residues, but drainage N loss was only 1.1 kg N ha −1 yr −1 greater for NRRpre. Post-emergence N application with no residue removal (NRRpost) reduced average drainage N loss by 16.5 kg ha −1 yr −1 compared to pre-plant N fertilization (NRRpre). The farm-gate net energy ratio was greatest for RRpost and lowest for NRRpre (14.1 and 10.4 MJ output per MJ input) while greenhouse gas intensity was lowest for RRpost and highest for NRRpre (11.7 and 17.3 g CO 2 -eq. MJ −1 output). Similar to published studies, the simulations showed little difference in N 2 O emissions between scenarios, decreased microbial immobilization for RR compared to NRR, and small soil carbon changes over the 10-yr simulation. In contrast to several previous modeling studies, the crop yield and N lost to drain flow were nearly the same between NRR and RR without supplemental N applied to replace N removed with corn stover. These results are important to optimizing the energy and nitrogen budgets associated with corn stover harvest and for developing a sustainable bioenergy industry.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)776-792
Number of pages17
JournalScience of the Total Environment
Volume663
DOIs
StatePublished - May 1 2019

Fingerprint

energy budget
maize
Drainage
drainage
Fertilizers
Carbon Monoxide
Greenhouse gases
Farms
Crops
Water quality
Nitrogen
Carbon
simulation
Soils
bioenergy
harvest
soil carbon
crop yield
immobilization
drain

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Environmental Engineering
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Waste Management and Disposal
  • Pollution

Cite this

Malone, R. W. ; Herbstritt, S. ; Ma, L. ; Richard, Thomas Lehman ; Cibin Raj, Fnu ; Gassman, P. W. ; Zhang, H. H. ; Karlen, D. L. ; Hatfield, J. L. ; Obrycki, J. F. ; Helmers, M. J. ; Jaynes, D. B. ; Kaspar, T. C. ; Parkin, T. B. ; Fang, Q. X. / Corn stover harvest N and energy budgets in central Iowa. In: Science of the Total Environment. 2019 ; Vol. 663. pp. 776-792.
@article{5c2c21421e4741c68a0cb2e9b00b3e25,
title = "Corn stover harvest N and energy budgets in central Iowa",
abstract = "Harvesting corn stover removes N from the fields, but its effect on subsurface drainage and other N losses is uncertain. We used the Root Zone Water Quality Model (RZWQM) to examine N losses with 0 (NRR) or 50{\%} (RR) corn residue removal within a corn and soybean rotation over a 10-yr period. In general, all simulations used the same pre-plant or post-emergence N fertilizer rate (200 kg ha −1 yr −1 ). Simulated annual corn yields averaged 10.7 Mg ha −1 for the post emergence applications (NRRpost and RRpost), and 9.5 and 9.4 Mg ha −1 yr −1 for NRRpre and RRpre. Average total N input during corn years was 19.3 kg N ha −1 greater for NRRpre compared to RRpre due to additional N in surface residues, but drainage N loss was only 1.1 kg N ha −1 yr −1 greater for NRRpre. Post-emergence N application with no residue removal (NRRpost) reduced average drainage N loss by 16.5 kg ha −1 yr −1 compared to pre-plant N fertilization (NRRpre). The farm-gate net energy ratio was greatest for RRpost and lowest for NRRpre (14.1 and 10.4 MJ output per MJ input) while greenhouse gas intensity was lowest for RRpost and highest for NRRpre (11.7 and 17.3 g CO 2 -eq. MJ −1 output). Similar to published studies, the simulations showed little difference in N 2 O emissions between scenarios, decreased microbial immobilization for RR compared to NRR, and small soil carbon changes over the 10-yr simulation. In contrast to several previous modeling studies, the crop yield and N lost to drain flow were nearly the same between NRR and RR without supplemental N applied to replace N removed with corn stover. These results are important to optimizing the energy and nitrogen budgets associated with corn stover harvest and for developing a sustainable bioenergy industry.",
author = "Malone, {R. W.} and S. Herbstritt and L. Ma and Richard, {Thomas Lehman} and {Cibin Raj}, Fnu and Gassman, {P. W.} and Zhang, {H. H.} and Karlen, {D. L.} and Hatfield, {J. L.} and Obrycki, {J. F.} and Helmers, {M. J.} and Jaynes, {D. B.} and Kaspar, {T. C.} and Parkin, {T. B.} and Fang, {Q. X.}",
year = "2019",
month = "5",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.01.328",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "663",
pages = "776--792",
journal = "Science of the Total Environment",
issn = "0048-9697",
publisher = "Elsevier",

}

Malone, RW, Herbstritt, S, Ma, L, Richard, TL, Cibin Raj, F, Gassman, PW, Zhang, HH, Karlen, DL, Hatfield, JL, Obrycki, JF, Helmers, MJ, Jaynes, DB, Kaspar, TC, Parkin, TB & Fang, QX 2019, 'Corn stover harvest N and energy budgets in central Iowa', Science of the Total Environment, vol. 663, pp. 776-792. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.01.328

Corn stover harvest N and energy budgets in central Iowa. / Malone, R. W.; Herbstritt, S.; Ma, L.; Richard, Thomas Lehman; Cibin Raj, Fnu; Gassman, P. W.; Zhang, H. H.; Karlen, D. L.; Hatfield, J. L.; Obrycki, J. F.; Helmers, M. J.; Jaynes, D. B.; Kaspar, T. C.; Parkin, T. B.; Fang, Q. X.

In: Science of the Total Environment, Vol. 663, 01.05.2019, p. 776-792.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Corn stover harvest N and energy budgets in central Iowa

AU - Malone, R. W.

AU - Herbstritt, S.

AU - Ma, L.

AU - Richard, Thomas Lehman

AU - Cibin Raj, Fnu

AU - Gassman, P. W.

AU - Zhang, H. H.

AU - Karlen, D. L.

AU - Hatfield, J. L.

AU - Obrycki, J. F.

AU - Helmers, M. J.

AU - Jaynes, D. B.

AU - Kaspar, T. C.

AU - Parkin, T. B.

AU - Fang, Q. X.

PY - 2019/5/1

Y1 - 2019/5/1

N2 - Harvesting corn stover removes N from the fields, but its effect on subsurface drainage and other N losses is uncertain. We used the Root Zone Water Quality Model (RZWQM) to examine N losses with 0 (NRR) or 50% (RR) corn residue removal within a corn and soybean rotation over a 10-yr period. In general, all simulations used the same pre-plant or post-emergence N fertilizer rate (200 kg ha −1 yr −1 ). Simulated annual corn yields averaged 10.7 Mg ha −1 for the post emergence applications (NRRpost and RRpost), and 9.5 and 9.4 Mg ha −1 yr −1 for NRRpre and RRpre. Average total N input during corn years was 19.3 kg N ha −1 greater for NRRpre compared to RRpre due to additional N in surface residues, but drainage N loss was only 1.1 kg N ha −1 yr −1 greater for NRRpre. Post-emergence N application with no residue removal (NRRpost) reduced average drainage N loss by 16.5 kg ha −1 yr −1 compared to pre-plant N fertilization (NRRpre). The farm-gate net energy ratio was greatest for RRpost and lowest for NRRpre (14.1 and 10.4 MJ output per MJ input) while greenhouse gas intensity was lowest for RRpost and highest for NRRpre (11.7 and 17.3 g CO 2 -eq. MJ −1 output). Similar to published studies, the simulations showed little difference in N 2 O emissions between scenarios, decreased microbial immobilization for RR compared to NRR, and small soil carbon changes over the 10-yr simulation. In contrast to several previous modeling studies, the crop yield and N lost to drain flow were nearly the same between NRR and RR without supplemental N applied to replace N removed with corn stover. These results are important to optimizing the energy and nitrogen budgets associated with corn stover harvest and for developing a sustainable bioenergy industry.

AB - Harvesting corn stover removes N from the fields, but its effect on subsurface drainage and other N losses is uncertain. We used the Root Zone Water Quality Model (RZWQM) to examine N losses with 0 (NRR) or 50% (RR) corn residue removal within a corn and soybean rotation over a 10-yr period. In general, all simulations used the same pre-plant or post-emergence N fertilizer rate (200 kg ha −1 yr −1 ). Simulated annual corn yields averaged 10.7 Mg ha −1 for the post emergence applications (NRRpost and RRpost), and 9.5 and 9.4 Mg ha −1 yr −1 for NRRpre and RRpre. Average total N input during corn years was 19.3 kg N ha −1 greater for NRRpre compared to RRpre due to additional N in surface residues, but drainage N loss was only 1.1 kg N ha −1 yr −1 greater for NRRpre. Post-emergence N application with no residue removal (NRRpost) reduced average drainage N loss by 16.5 kg ha −1 yr −1 compared to pre-plant N fertilization (NRRpre). The farm-gate net energy ratio was greatest for RRpost and lowest for NRRpre (14.1 and 10.4 MJ output per MJ input) while greenhouse gas intensity was lowest for RRpost and highest for NRRpre (11.7 and 17.3 g CO 2 -eq. MJ −1 output). Similar to published studies, the simulations showed little difference in N 2 O emissions between scenarios, decreased microbial immobilization for RR compared to NRR, and small soil carbon changes over the 10-yr simulation. In contrast to several previous modeling studies, the crop yield and N lost to drain flow were nearly the same between NRR and RR without supplemental N applied to replace N removed with corn stover. These results are important to optimizing the energy and nitrogen budgets associated with corn stover harvest and for developing a sustainable bioenergy industry.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85061053036&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85061053036&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.01.328

DO - 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.01.328

M3 - Article

VL - 663

SP - 776

EP - 792

JO - Science of the Total Environment

JF - Science of the Total Environment

SN - 0048-9697

ER -