Purpose: We compared characteristics related to fertility between formerly unilaterally cryptorchid men. Materials and Methods: We compared sperm counts and gonadotropin levels before and after gonadotropin-releasing hormone stimulation between formerly unilaterally cryptorchid men and controls who had completed a detailed questionnaire on fertility and other pertinent paternity information. These parameters were also compared between the subsets of formerly cryptorchid men who reported paternity and unsuccessful attempts at paternity. Results: Sperm density and total count, and basal and gonadotropin-releasing hormone stimulated follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels were different in the cryptorchidism and control groups. Higher FSH levels and lower sperm counts correlated inversely in the cryptorchidism group, while luteinizing hormone, testosterone and other results of semen analysis did not differ. Furthermore, FSH levels were higher and sperm counts were lower in the subset who reported unsuccessful attempts at paternity compared with those reporting paternity. Other measured parameters did not differ between these groups. Conclusions: FSH levels are significantly higher and sperm counts are significantly lower in formerly cryptorchid men than in controls. In the cryptorchidism group the same differences are found in fertile and infertile men. Thus, elevated FSH and low sperm counts may be considered risks for infertility in formerly cryptorchid men.
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