Coupling of diffusion and chemical stress: The case of ion exchange in glass

Guglielmo Macrelli, John C. Mauro, Arun K. Varshneya

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2 Scopus citations


The chemical strengthening of glass results from an ion exchange process in which smaller alkali ions in a glass are replaced with larger alkali ions from a molten salt bath. This interdiffusion process leads to a buildup of chemical stress in the glass. However, traditional modeling of the ion exchange process has not fully accounted for interaction effects between mass diffusion and the chemical stress developed during the process. In this study, we develop the general theory of coupling between diffusion and stress, resulting in a single flux equation with a concentration- and stress-dependent interdiffusion coefficient. We apply the theory to the specific cases of chemically strengthened soda lime silicate and aluminosilicate glasses, demonstrating the impact of interaction terms on concentration profiles and interdiffusion coefficient. Following a phenomenological approach, this study demonstrates the effect of the interdiffusion on stress generation and vice versa to account for deviations from the simple expressions published hitherto in the literature.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)5599-5613
Number of pages15
JournalJournal of the American Ceramic Society
Issue number11
StatePublished - Nov 2021

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Ceramics and Composites
  • Materials Chemistry


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