The concept of Critical Success Factors (CSFs) in projects represents an area of scholarly activity with roots going back over some 40 years. Critical Success Factors are generally defined as elements of a project which, when addressed by project stakeholders, increase the likelihood of success; these are the independent variables that make success more likely. This chapter will examine the nature of two critical elements in R&D project management: (1) the nature of project success and (2) project scritical success factors. Addressing the current scholarship on success and CSFs, we will examine how these concepts form a critical knowledge base for translating the planning and organisation of R&D project activities into projects with a greater likelihood for successful outcomes. The chapter will investigate the multiple perspectives necessary to accurately gauge project success (focusing on the critical measurement questions of ‘What’ and ‘When’). We will offer some examples from a case study of Google Glass and conclude with some prescriptive advice for both scholars and practitioners.