This study tests how the parser adapts to input by considering how multiple redundant cues are integrated in predictive processing. We employ the visual world paradigm to investigate whether German native speakers use case and prosody together to anticipate post-verbal arguments. In Experiment 1, participants heard subject-first and object-first sentences containing either case and prosodic cues or only case cues in a single mixed block. In Experiments 2 and 3, sentences were presented in separate blocks, such that participants heard sentences with prosodic cues in either Block 1 (Experiment 3) or Block 2 (Experiment 2). The results show that participants used prosodic and case-marking cues additively to anticipate post-verbal arguments. Additive effects varied according to the distribution of the cues and their order of presentation. We conclude that the presence of multiple redundant cues facilitates sentence processing and that the parser adapts to the utility of cues based on their availability.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Language and Linguistics
- Experimental and Cognitive Psychology
- Linguistics and Language
- Cognitive Neuroscience