Tree size and estimated yield per hectare of Geneva apple (Malus × domestica) dwarf and semi-dwarf rootstocks and one Kentville rootstock in the 1992 NC-140 'Liberty' trial were compared to Malling rootstocks. In the dwarf plot, trunk cross-sectional area (TCA) of G.11 was similar to M.9 EMLA. TCA of CG.4202 and CG.3029 was not significantly different from either M.9 EMLA or M.26 EMLA. Yield per tree and estimated cumulative yield per hectare (ECY), in the 10th season after planting, did not vary with rootstock. In the semi-dwarf plot, TCA of CG.4222 and CG.6210 was smaller than that of M.7 EMLA. TCA of G.30 and CG.7707 was similar to M.7 EMLA. TCA of KSC28 was similar to MM.106 EMLA. Yield per tree in the 10th season was greater on MM.106 EMLA than on CG.4222, CG.6210, G.30, M.7 EMLA and CG.7707, but was similar to KSC28. Tenth season ECY of CG.6210, G.30 and CG.7707 was greater than ECY of M.7 EMLA and MM.106 EMLA. ECY of CG.4222 was greater than ECY of M.7 EMLA, but similar to ECY of MM.106 EMLA. ECY of KSC28 was similar to M.7 EMLA and MM.106 EMLA. With lower tree costs than M.9 EMLA, but similar cumulative yield, CG.4202 and CG.3029 would likely result in earlier return of orchard establishment investment cost. With similar tree costs but greater cumulative yield, CG.6210 and G.30 would likely result in earlier return of investment cost in comparison with M.7 EMLA.