We report on a concept for curved diffractive X-ray optics (CDXO). CDXO would enable potential new optical designs for X-ray instruments, such as a two element spectrometer, in which the secondary element of an X- ray mirror pair is patterned with an X-ray grating. A two-element spectrometer design eliminates the grating assembly, resulting in decreased instrument mass and reduced power requirements. In addition, a two-element spectrometer may realize cost/schedule savings by eliminating a separate grating alignment effort, and yield increased effective area over three element designs. We present a raytrace concept study of a two-element spectrometer compact enough to fit within a sounding rocket payload. We also review the progress made in electron-beam lithography (EBL) techniques that would enable curved diffractive X-ray optics to be patterned, and outline a procedure by which the accuracy of the EBL patterning process can be measured interferometrically.