Salp15 is an Ixodes scapularis salivary protein that inhibits CD4 + T cell activation through the repression of TCR ligation-triggered calcium fluxes and IL-2 production. We show in this study that Salp15 binds specifically to the CD4 coreceptor on mammalian host T cells. Salp15 specifically associates through its C-terminal residues with the outermost two extracellular domains of CD4. Upon binding to CD4, Salp15 inhibits the subsequent TCR ligation-induced T cell signaling at the earliest steps including tyrosine phosphorylation of the Src kinase Lck, down-stream effector proteins, and lipid raft reorganization. These results provide a molecular basis to understanding the immunosuppressive activity of Salp15 and its specificity for CD4+ T cells.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Immunology and Allergy