Cymbal and BB underwater transducers and arrays

R. E. Newnham, J. Zhang, S. Alkoy, R. Meyer, W. J. Hughes, A. C. Hladky-Hennion, J. Cochran, D. Markley

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


The cymbal is a miniaturized class V flextensional transducer that was developed for use as a shallow water sound projector and receiver. Single elements are characterized by high Q, low efficiency, and medium power output capability. Its low cost and thin profile allow the transducer to be assembled into large flexible arrays. Efforts were made to model both single elements and arrays using the ATILA code and the integral equation formulation (EQI). Millimeter size microprobe hydrophones (BBs) have been designed and fabricated from miniature piezoelectric hollow ceramic spheres for underwater applications such as mapping acoustic fields of projectors, and flow noise sensors for complex underwater structures. Green spheres are prepared from soft lead zirconate titanate powders using a coaxial nozzle slurry process. A compact hydrophone with a radially-poled sphere is investigated using inside and outside electrodes. Characterization of these hydrophones is done through measurement of hydrostatic piezoelectric charge coefficients, free field voltage sensitivities and directivity beam patterns.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)89-91
Number of pages3
JournalMaterials Research Innovations
Issue number3
StatePublished - Sep 2002

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Materials Science(all)
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Mechanical Engineering


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