Background: The authors hypothesized that cytoreductive surgery (CRS, comprising gastrectomy combined with metastasectomy) in addition to systemic chemotherapy (SC) is associated with a better survival than chemotherapy alone for patients with metastatic gastric adenocarcinoma (MGA). Methods: Patients with MGA who received SC between 2004 and 2016 were identified using the National Cancer Database (NCDB). Nearest-neighbor 1:1 propensity score-matching was used to create comparable groups. Overall survival (OS) was compared between subgroups using Kaplan–Meier analyses. Immortal bias analysis was performed among those who survived longer than 90 days. Results: The study identified 29,728 chemotherapy-treated patients, who were divided into the following four subgroups: no surgery (NS, n = 25,690), metastasectomy alone (n = 1170), gastrectomy alone (n = 2248), and CRS (n = 620) with median OS periods of 8.6, 10.9, 14.8, and 16.3 months, respectively (p < 0.001). Compared with the patients who underwent NS, the patients who had CRS were younger (58.9 ± 13.4 vs 62.0 ± 13.1 years), had a lower proportion of disease involving multiple sites (4.6% vs 19.1%), and were more likely to be clinically occult (cM0 stage: 59.2% vs 8.3%) (p < 0.001 for all). The median OS for the propensity-matched patients who underwent CRS (n = 615) was longer than for those with NS (16.4 vs 9.3 months; p < 0.001), including in those with clinical M1 stage (n = 210). In the Cox regression model using the matched data, the hazard ratio for CRS versus NS was 0.56 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.49–0.63). In the immortal-matched cohort, the corresponding median OS was 17.0 versus 9.5 months (p < 0.001). Conclusions: In addition to SC, CRS may be associated with an OS benefit for a selected group of MGA patients meriting further prospective investigation.
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