Deep convection as a source of new particles in the midlatitude upper troposphere

Cynthia H. Twohy, Charles F. Clement, Bruce W. Gandrud, Andrew J. Weinheimer, Teresa L. Campos, Darrel Baumgardner, William Henry Brune, Ian Faloona, Glen W. Sachse, Stephanie A. Vay, David Tan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

A case study of new particle formation in the region downwind of a mesoscale convective system stretching across much of the central United States is presented. Airborne measurements were made of condensation nuclei (CN), cloud particle surface area, water vapor, and other gases. CN concentrations were greatly enhanced above and downwind of the cirrus anvil, with maximum concentrations of 45,000 per standard cm3. Volatility and electron microscope measurements indicated that most of the particles were likely to be small sulfate particles. The enhancement extended over at least a 600-km region. Multivariate statistical analysis revealed that high CN concentrations were associated with surface tracers, as well as convective elements. Convection apparently brings gas-phase particle precursors from the surface to the storm outflow region, where particle nucleation is favored by the extremely low temperatures. Simple calculations showed that deep convective systems may contribute to a substantial portion of the background aerosol in the upper troposphere at midlatitudes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalJournal of Geophysical Research Atmospheres
Volume107
Issue number21
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2002

Fingerprint

Troposphere
temperate regions
troposphere
Condensation
convection
condensation nuclei
Gases
convective system
Steam
Aerosols
Sulfates
Stretching
condensation
Statistical methods
Nucleation
Electron microscopes
multivariate statistical analysis
gases
cloud condensation nucleus
Midwestern United States

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Geophysics
  • Forestry
  • Oceanography
  • Aquatic Science
  • Ecology
  • Water Science and Technology
  • Soil Science
  • Geochemistry and Petrology
  • Earth-Surface Processes
  • Atmospheric Science
  • Earth and Planetary Sciences (miscellaneous)
  • Space and Planetary Science
  • Palaeontology

Cite this

Twohy, C. H., Clement, C. F., Gandrud, B. W., Weinheimer, A. J., Campos, T. L., Baumgardner, D., ... Tan, D. (2002). Deep convection as a source of new particles in the midlatitude upper troposphere. Journal of Geophysical Research Atmospheres, 107(21). https://doi.org/10.1029/2001JD000323
Twohy, Cynthia H. ; Clement, Charles F. ; Gandrud, Bruce W. ; Weinheimer, Andrew J. ; Campos, Teresa L. ; Baumgardner, Darrel ; Brune, William Henry ; Faloona, Ian ; Sachse, Glen W. ; Vay, Stephanie A. ; Tan, David. / Deep convection as a source of new particles in the midlatitude upper troposphere. In: Journal of Geophysical Research Atmospheres. 2002 ; Vol. 107, No. 21.
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abstract = "A case study of new particle formation in the region downwind of a mesoscale convective system stretching across much of the central United States is presented. Airborne measurements were made of condensation nuclei (CN), cloud particle surface area, water vapor, and other gases. CN concentrations were greatly enhanced above and downwind of the cirrus anvil, with maximum concentrations of 45,000 per standard cm3. Volatility and electron microscope measurements indicated that most of the particles were likely to be small sulfate particles. The enhancement extended over at least a 600-km region. Multivariate statistical analysis revealed that high CN concentrations were associated with surface tracers, as well as convective elements. Convection apparently brings gas-phase particle precursors from the surface to the storm outflow region, where particle nucleation is favored by the extremely low temperatures. Simple calculations showed that deep convective systems may contribute to a substantial portion of the background aerosol in the upper troposphere at midlatitudes.",
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Twohy, CH, Clement, CF, Gandrud, BW, Weinheimer, AJ, Campos, TL, Baumgardner, D, Brune, WH, Faloona, I, Sachse, GW, Vay, SA & Tan, D 2002, 'Deep convection as a source of new particles in the midlatitude upper troposphere', Journal of Geophysical Research Atmospheres, vol. 107, no. 21. https://doi.org/10.1029/2001JD000323

Deep convection as a source of new particles in the midlatitude upper troposphere. / Twohy, Cynthia H.; Clement, Charles F.; Gandrud, Bruce W.; Weinheimer, Andrew J.; Campos, Teresa L.; Baumgardner, Darrel; Brune, William Henry; Faloona, Ian; Sachse, Glen W.; Vay, Stephanie A.; Tan, David.

In: Journal of Geophysical Research Atmospheres, Vol. 107, No. 21, 01.01.2002.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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T1 - Deep convection as a source of new particles in the midlatitude upper troposphere

AU - Twohy, Cynthia H.

AU - Clement, Charles F.

AU - Gandrud, Bruce W.

AU - Weinheimer, Andrew J.

AU - Campos, Teresa L.

AU - Baumgardner, Darrel

AU - Brune, William Henry

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AU - Sachse, Glen W.

AU - Vay, Stephanie A.

AU - Tan, David

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N2 - A case study of new particle formation in the region downwind of a mesoscale convective system stretching across much of the central United States is presented. Airborne measurements were made of condensation nuclei (CN), cloud particle surface area, water vapor, and other gases. CN concentrations were greatly enhanced above and downwind of the cirrus anvil, with maximum concentrations of 45,000 per standard cm3. Volatility and electron microscope measurements indicated that most of the particles were likely to be small sulfate particles. The enhancement extended over at least a 600-km region. Multivariate statistical analysis revealed that high CN concentrations were associated with surface tracers, as well as convective elements. Convection apparently brings gas-phase particle precursors from the surface to the storm outflow region, where particle nucleation is favored by the extremely low temperatures. Simple calculations showed that deep convective systems may contribute to a substantial portion of the background aerosol in the upper troposphere at midlatitudes.

AB - A case study of new particle formation in the region downwind of a mesoscale convective system stretching across much of the central United States is presented. Airborne measurements were made of condensation nuclei (CN), cloud particle surface area, water vapor, and other gases. CN concentrations were greatly enhanced above and downwind of the cirrus anvil, with maximum concentrations of 45,000 per standard cm3. Volatility and electron microscope measurements indicated that most of the particles were likely to be small sulfate particles. The enhancement extended over at least a 600-km region. Multivariate statistical analysis revealed that high CN concentrations were associated with surface tracers, as well as convective elements. Convection apparently brings gas-phase particle precursors from the surface to the storm outflow region, where particle nucleation is favored by the extremely low temperatures. Simple calculations showed that deep convective systems may contribute to a substantial portion of the background aerosol in the upper troposphere at midlatitudes.

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