Understanding resistance degradation during the application of DC bias and recovery after removing the DC bias provides insight into failure mechanisms and defects in dielectric materials. In this experiment, modulus spectroscopy and thermally stimulated depolarization current (TSDC) techniques were used to characterize the degradation and recovery of iron-doped barium titanate single crystals. Modulus spectroscopy is a very powerful analytical tool applied during degradation and recovery to observe changes in the local conductivity distribution. During degradation, oxygen vacancies migrate to the cathode region, and a counter flow of oxygen anions migrates towards the anode. With increasing time during degradation, the distribution of conductivity broadens only slightly exhibiting crucial differences to iron doped strontium titanate. After removing the DC bias, the recovery shows that a second previously unobserved and distinct conductivity maximum arises in the modulus data. This characteristic with two maxima related to different conductivities in the anode and cathode region is what can be expected from the published defect chemistry. It will be concluded that only the absence of an external electric field during recovery measurements permits the observation of local conductivity measurements without the presence of non-equilibrium conditions such as charge injection. Equilibrium conductivity as a function of oxygen vacancy concentration is described schematically. Oxygen vacancy migration during degradation and recovery is verified by TSDC analysis. We establish a self-consistent rationale of the transient changes in the modulus and TSDC for the iron doped barium titanate single crystal system including electron, hole and oxygen vacancy conductivity. During degradation, the sample fractured.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Physics and Astronomy(all)