Demonstration of Copper Co-Fired (Na, K)NbO3 Multilayer Structures for Piezoelectric Applications

Lisheng Gao, Song Won Ko, Hanzheng Guo, Eberhard Hennig, Clive A. Randall, Jacob L. Jones

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

17 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

A Li and Ta modified (Na, K)NbO3 piezoelectric ceramic has been successfully co-fired with inner copper electrodes in a reduced atmosphere. Highly dense NKN ceramics (95% relative density, 4.64 g/cm3) were obtained by sintering the samples in a low oxygen partial pressure (low pO2) atmosphere at 1050°C. The poly(propylene carbonate) binder system was used to permit a clean burnout at low temperature in N2 atmosphere, and also prevent the electrode copper particles from undergoing any oxidation. No interdiffusion of copper, chemical reactions, and/or carbon residues were observed in the grains, grain boundaries, or at the electrode-ceramic interface of the co-fired samples from a detailed transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis. Dielectric and piezoelectric properties were characterized from those co-fired prototyped samples. The samples displayed high relative dielectric permittivity above 800, with low dielectric loss about 3.6%. A normalized strain coefficient d33 (max. strain/max. electric field) of d33 = 220 pm/V was obtained under unipolar converse electromechanical measurement at 20 kV/cm. This paper presents the feasibility of co-firing a Cu inner electrode with NKN ceramics toward multilayer lead-free piezoelectric applications, providing an engineering route to narrow the performance differences between soft lead-based piezoelectrics and lead-free materials.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2017-2023
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of the American Ceramic Society
Volume99
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 1 2016

Fingerprint

ceramics
Copper
Multilayers
electrode
Demonstrations
copper
Electrodes
Lead
atmosphere
carbonate system
Piezoelectric ceramics
permittivity
Dielectric losses
grain boundary
partial pressure
chemical reaction
Partial pressure
Binders
transmission electron microscopy
electric field

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Ceramics and Composites
  • Geology
  • Geochemistry and Petrology
  • Materials Chemistry

Cite this

Gao, Lisheng ; Ko, Song Won ; Guo, Hanzheng ; Hennig, Eberhard ; Randall, Clive A. ; Jones, Jacob L. / Demonstration of Copper Co-Fired (Na, K)NbO3 Multilayer Structures for Piezoelectric Applications. In: Journal of the American Ceramic Society. 2016 ; Vol. 99, No. 6. pp. 2017-2023.
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Demonstration of Copper Co-Fired (Na, K)NbO3 Multilayer Structures for Piezoelectric Applications. / Gao, Lisheng; Ko, Song Won; Guo, Hanzheng; Hennig, Eberhard; Randall, Clive A.; Jones, Jacob L.

In: Journal of the American Ceramic Society, Vol. 99, No. 6, 01.06.2016, p. 2017-2023.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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AU - Jones, Jacob L.

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AB - A Li and Ta modified (Na, K)NbO3 piezoelectric ceramic has been successfully co-fired with inner copper electrodes in a reduced atmosphere. Highly dense NKN ceramics (95% relative density, 4.64 g/cm3) were obtained by sintering the samples in a low oxygen partial pressure (low pO2) atmosphere at 1050°C. The poly(propylene carbonate) binder system was used to permit a clean burnout at low temperature in N2 atmosphere, and also prevent the electrode copper particles from undergoing any oxidation. No interdiffusion of copper, chemical reactions, and/or carbon residues were observed in the grains, grain boundaries, or at the electrode-ceramic interface of the co-fired samples from a detailed transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis. Dielectric and piezoelectric properties were characterized from those co-fired prototyped samples. The samples displayed high relative dielectric permittivity above 800, with low dielectric loss about 3.6%. A normalized strain coefficient d33 (max. strain/max. electric field) of d33 = 220 pm/V was obtained under unipolar converse electromechanical measurement at 20 kV/cm. This paper presents the feasibility of co-firing a Cu inner electrode with NKN ceramics toward multilayer lead-free piezoelectric applications, providing an engineering route to narrow the performance differences between soft lead-based piezoelectrics and lead-free materials.

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