A new generation of biomaterials are evolving from being biologically inert toward bioactive surfaces, which can further interact with biological components at the nanoscale. Here, we present directed irradiation synthesis (DIS) as a novel technology to selectively apply plasma ions to bombard any type of biomaterial and tailor the nanofeatures needed for in vitro growth stimulation. In this work, we demonstrate for the first time, the influence of physiochemical cues (e.g., self-organized topography at nanoscale) of medical grade Ti6Al4V results in control of cell shape, adhesion, and proliferation of human aortic smooth muscle stem cells. The control of surface nanostructures was found to be correlated to ion-beam incidence angle linked to a surface diffusive regime during irradiation synthesis with argon ions at energies below 1 keV and a fluence of 2.5 × 1017 cm-2. Cell viability and cytoskeleton morphology were evaluated at 24 h, observing an advance cell attachment state on post-DIS surfaces. These modified surfaces showed 84% of cell biocompatibility and an increase in cytoplasmatic protusions ensuring a higher cell adhesion state. Filopodia density was promoted by a 3-fold change for oblique incidence angle DIS treatment compared to controls (e.g., no patterning) and lamellipodia structures were increased more than a factor of 2, which are indicators of cell attachment stimulation due to DIS modification. In addition, the morphology of the nanofeatures were tailored, with high fidelity control of the main DIS parameters that control diffusive and erosive regimes of self-organization. We have correlated the morphology and the influence in cell behavior, where nanoripple formation is the most active morphology for cell stimulation.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Biomedical Engineering