Detailed compositional characterization of plastic waste pyrolysis oil by comprehensive two-dimensional gas-chromatography coupled to multiple detectors

Hilal E. Toraman, Thomas Dijkmans, Marko R. Djokic, Kevin M. Van Geem, Guy B. Marin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

28 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The detailed compositional characterization of plastic waste pyrolysis oil was performed with comprehensive two-dimensional GC (GC. ×. GC) coupled to four different detectors: a flame ionization detector (FID), a sulfur chemiluminescence detector (SCD), a nitrogen chemiluminescence detector (NCD) and a time of flight mass spectrometer (TOF-MS). The performances of different column combinations were assessed in normal i.e. apolar/mid-polar and reversed configurations for the GC. ×. GC-NCD and GC. ×. GC-SCD analyses. The information obtained from the four detectors and the use of internal standards, i.e. 3-chlorothiophene for the FID and the SCD and 2-chloropyridine for the NCD analysis, enabled the identification and quantification of the pyrolysis oil in terms of both group type and carbon number: hydrocarbon groups (n-paraffins, iso-paraffins, olefins and naphthenes, monoaromatics, naphthenoaromatics, diaromatics, naphthenodiaromatics, triaromatics, naphthenotriaromatics and tetra-aromatics), nitrogen (nitriles, pyridines, quinolines, indole, caprolactam, etc.), sulfur (thiols/sulfides, thiophenes/disulfides, benzothiophenes, dibenzothiophenes, etc.) and oxygen containing compounds (ketones, phenols, aldehydes, ethers, etc.). Quantification of trace impurities is illustrated for indole and caprolactam. The analyzed pyrolysis oil included a significant amount of nitrogen containing compounds (6.4. wt%) and to a lesser extent sulfur containing compounds (0.6. wt%). These nitrogen and sulfur containing compounds described approximately 80% of the total peak volume for respectively the NCD and SCD analysis. TOF-MS indicated the presence of the oxygen containing compounds. However only a part of the oxygen containing compounds (2.5. wt%) was identified because of their low concentrations and possible overlap with the complex hydrocarbon matrix as no selective detector or preparative separation for oxygen compounds was used.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)237-246
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Chromatography A
Volume1359
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 12 2014

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Luminescence
Gas chromatography
Gas Chromatography
Plastics
Oils
Pyrolysis
Oxygen Compounds
Chemiluminescence
Detectors
Sulfur
Nitrogen
Caprolactam
Flame Ionization
Sulfur Compounds
Hydrocarbons
Paraffin
Quinolines
Pyridines
Nitrogen Compounds
Mass spectrometers

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Analytical Chemistry
  • Biochemistry
  • Organic Chemistry

Cite this

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title = "Detailed compositional characterization of plastic waste pyrolysis oil by comprehensive two-dimensional gas-chromatography coupled to multiple detectors",
abstract = "The detailed compositional characterization of plastic waste pyrolysis oil was performed with comprehensive two-dimensional GC (GC. ×. GC) coupled to four different detectors: a flame ionization detector (FID), a sulfur chemiluminescence detector (SCD), a nitrogen chemiluminescence detector (NCD) and a time of flight mass spectrometer (TOF-MS). The performances of different column combinations were assessed in normal i.e. apolar/mid-polar and reversed configurations for the GC. ×. GC-NCD and GC. ×. GC-SCD analyses. The information obtained from the four detectors and the use of internal standards, i.e. 3-chlorothiophene for the FID and the SCD and 2-chloropyridine for the NCD analysis, enabled the identification and quantification of the pyrolysis oil in terms of both group type and carbon number: hydrocarbon groups (n-paraffins, iso-paraffins, olefins and naphthenes, monoaromatics, naphthenoaromatics, diaromatics, naphthenodiaromatics, triaromatics, naphthenotriaromatics and tetra-aromatics), nitrogen (nitriles, pyridines, quinolines, indole, caprolactam, etc.), sulfur (thiols/sulfides, thiophenes/disulfides, benzothiophenes, dibenzothiophenes, etc.) and oxygen containing compounds (ketones, phenols, aldehydes, ethers, etc.). Quantification of trace impurities is illustrated for indole and caprolactam. The analyzed pyrolysis oil included a significant amount of nitrogen containing compounds (6.4. wt{\%}) and to a lesser extent sulfur containing compounds (0.6. wt{\%}). These nitrogen and sulfur containing compounds described approximately 80{\%} of the total peak volume for respectively the NCD and SCD analysis. TOF-MS indicated the presence of the oxygen containing compounds. However only a part of the oxygen containing compounds (2.5. wt{\%}) was identified because of their low concentrations and possible overlap with the complex hydrocarbon matrix as no selective detector or preparative separation for oxygen compounds was used.",
author = "Toraman, {Hilal E.} and Thomas Dijkmans and Djokic, {Marko R.} and {Van Geem}, {Kevin M.} and Marin, {Guy B.}",
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Detailed compositional characterization of plastic waste pyrolysis oil by comprehensive two-dimensional gas-chromatography coupled to multiple detectors. / Toraman, Hilal E.; Dijkmans, Thomas; Djokic, Marko R.; Van Geem, Kevin M.; Marin, Guy B.

In: Journal of Chromatography A, Vol. 1359, 12.09.2014, p. 237-246.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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T1 - Detailed compositional characterization of plastic waste pyrolysis oil by comprehensive two-dimensional gas-chromatography coupled to multiple detectors

AU - Toraman, Hilal E.

AU - Dijkmans, Thomas

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AU - Marin, Guy B.

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N2 - The detailed compositional characterization of plastic waste pyrolysis oil was performed with comprehensive two-dimensional GC (GC. ×. GC) coupled to four different detectors: a flame ionization detector (FID), a sulfur chemiluminescence detector (SCD), a nitrogen chemiluminescence detector (NCD) and a time of flight mass spectrometer (TOF-MS). The performances of different column combinations were assessed in normal i.e. apolar/mid-polar and reversed configurations for the GC. ×. GC-NCD and GC. ×. GC-SCD analyses. The information obtained from the four detectors and the use of internal standards, i.e. 3-chlorothiophene for the FID and the SCD and 2-chloropyridine for the NCD analysis, enabled the identification and quantification of the pyrolysis oil in terms of both group type and carbon number: hydrocarbon groups (n-paraffins, iso-paraffins, olefins and naphthenes, monoaromatics, naphthenoaromatics, diaromatics, naphthenodiaromatics, triaromatics, naphthenotriaromatics and tetra-aromatics), nitrogen (nitriles, pyridines, quinolines, indole, caprolactam, etc.), sulfur (thiols/sulfides, thiophenes/disulfides, benzothiophenes, dibenzothiophenes, etc.) and oxygen containing compounds (ketones, phenols, aldehydes, ethers, etc.). Quantification of trace impurities is illustrated for indole and caprolactam. The analyzed pyrolysis oil included a significant amount of nitrogen containing compounds (6.4. wt%) and to a lesser extent sulfur containing compounds (0.6. wt%). These nitrogen and sulfur containing compounds described approximately 80% of the total peak volume for respectively the NCD and SCD analysis. TOF-MS indicated the presence of the oxygen containing compounds. However only a part of the oxygen containing compounds (2.5. wt%) was identified because of their low concentrations and possible overlap with the complex hydrocarbon matrix as no selective detector or preparative separation for oxygen compounds was used.

AB - The detailed compositional characterization of plastic waste pyrolysis oil was performed with comprehensive two-dimensional GC (GC. ×. GC) coupled to four different detectors: a flame ionization detector (FID), a sulfur chemiluminescence detector (SCD), a nitrogen chemiluminescence detector (NCD) and a time of flight mass spectrometer (TOF-MS). The performances of different column combinations were assessed in normal i.e. apolar/mid-polar and reversed configurations for the GC. ×. GC-NCD and GC. ×. GC-SCD analyses. The information obtained from the four detectors and the use of internal standards, i.e. 3-chlorothiophene for the FID and the SCD and 2-chloropyridine for the NCD analysis, enabled the identification and quantification of the pyrolysis oil in terms of both group type and carbon number: hydrocarbon groups (n-paraffins, iso-paraffins, olefins and naphthenes, monoaromatics, naphthenoaromatics, diaromatics, naphthenodiaromatics, triaromatics, naphthenotriaromatics and tetra-aromatics), nitrogen (nitriles, pyridines, quinolines, indole, caprolactam, etc.), sulfur (thiols/sulfides, thiophenes/disulfides, benzothiophenes, dibenzothiophenes, etc.) and oxygen containing compounds (ketones, phenols, aldehydes, ethers, etc.). Quantification of trace impurities is illustrated for indole and caprolactam. The analyzed pyrolysis oil included a significant amount of nitrogen containing compounds (6.4. wt%) and to a lesser extent sulfur containing compounds (0.6. wt%). These nitrogen and sulfur containing compounds described approximately 80% of the total peak volume for respectively the NCD and SCD analysis. TOF-MS indicated the presence of the oxygen containing compounds. However only a part of the oxygen containing compounds (2.5. wt%) was identified because of their low concentrations and possible overlap with the complex hydrocarbon matrix as no selective detector or preparative separation for oxygen compounds was used.

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