This paper examines participants who are blind, with and without normal hearing, regarding detection of forward approaching and backing vehicles operating in electric mode (identified in this paper as quiet vehicles) under low speed conditions. Testing under low ambient sound conditions involved evaluation of internal combustion engine vehicles, hybrid vehicles operating in electric mode (EM), and the same hybrid vehicles operating in EM but with five different artificially generated sounds. Three of the five artificial sounds improved detection relative to the internal combustion engine condition for both forward and backward detection tasks. Regression analysis indicated that significant predictors of forward detection performance include average wind speed, amplitude modulation of the signal, hearing loss in the 500 Hz range, vehicle velocity, minimum ambient sound level, and overall vehicle sound level in units of A-weighted decibels. The corresponding analysis for backward detection indicated significant predictors, including a hearing loss in the 4 or 500 Hz ranges, vehicle velocity, minimum ambient sound level, vehicle sound level at the 250 Hz octave band, and the overall vehicle sound level in A-weighted decibels.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||7|
|Journal||Journal of Transportation Engineering|
|State||Published - Jan 1 2013|
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Civil and Structural Engineering