Determinants of water and sodium intake and output

Anna E. Stanhewicz, W. Larry Kenney

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

23 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Physiological regulation of sodium and water intake and output is required for the maintenance of homeostasis. The behavioral and neuroendocrine mechanisms that govern fluid and salt balance are highly interdependent, with acute and chronic alterations in renal output tightly balanced by appropriate changes in thirst and, to a lesser extent in humans, sodium appetite. In healthy individuals, these tightly coupled mechanisms maintain extracellular fluid volume and body tonicity within a narrow homeostatic range by initiating ingestive behaviors and the release of hormones necessary to conserve water and sodium within the body. In this review, the factors that determine output of sodium and fluid and those that determine "normal" input (i.e., matched to output) are addressed. For output, individual variability accompanied by dysregulation of homeostatic mechanisms may contribute to acute and/or chronic disease. To illustrate that point, the specific condition of salt-sensitive hypertension is discussed. For input, physical characteristics, physiological phenotypes, genetic and developmental influences, and cultural and environmental factors combine to result in a wide range of individual variability that, in humans, is compensated for by alterations in excretion.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)73-82
Number of pages10
JournalNutrition reviews
Volume73
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 18 2015

Fingerprint

Drinking
Sodium
Salts
Thirst
Water-Electrolyte Balance
Extracellular Fluid
Acute Disease
Appetite
Homeostasis
Chronic Disease
Maintenance
Hormones
Hypertension
Phenotype
Kidney
Water

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Nutrition and Dietetics

Cite this

@article{47cf7fadbcc6445b8c863450d2185769,
title = "Determinants of water and sodium intake and output",
abstract = "Physiological regulation of sodium and water intake and output is required for the maintenance of homeostasis. The behavioral and neuroendocrine mechanisms that govern fluid and salt balance are highly interdependent, with acute and chronic alterations in renal output tightly balanced by appropriate changes in thirst and, to a lesser extent in humans, sodium appetite. In healthy individuals, these tightly coupled mechanisms maintain extracellular fluid volume and body tonicity within a narrow homeostatic range by initiating ingestive behaviors and the release of hormones necessary to conserve water and sodium within the body. In this review, the factors that determine output of sodium and fluid and those that determine {"}normal{"} input (i.e., matched to output) are addressed. For output, individual variability accompanied by dysregulation of homeostatic mechanisms may contribute to acute and/or chronic disease. To illustrate that point, the specific condition of salt-sensitive hypertension is discussed. For input, physical characteristics, physiological phenotypes, genetic and developmental influences, and cultural and environmental factors combine to result in a wide range of individual variability that, in humans, is compensated for by alterations in excretion.",
author = "Stanhewicz, {Anna E.} and Kenney, {W. Larry}",
year = "2015",
month = "8",
day = "18",
doi = "10.1093/nutrit/nuv033",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "73",
pages = "73--82",
journal = "Nutrition Reviews",
issn = "0029-6643",
publisher = "Wiley-Blackwell",

}

Determinants of water and sodium intake and output. / Stanhewicz, Anna E.; Kenney, W. Larry.

In: Nutrition reviews, Vol. 73, 18.08.2015, p. 73-82.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Determinants of water and sodium intake and output

AU - Stanhewicz, Anna E.

AU - Kenney, W. Larry

PY - 2015/8/18

Y1 - 2015/8/18

N2 - Physiological regulation of sodium and water intake and output is required for the maintenance of homeostasis. The behavioral and neuroendocrine mechanisms that govern fluid and salt balance are highly interdependent, with acute and chronic alterations in renal output tightly balanced by appropriate changes in thirst and, to a lesser extent in humans, sodium appetite. In healthy individuals, these tightly coupled mechanisms maintain extracellular fluid volume and body tonicity within a narrow homeostatic range by initiating ingestive behaviors and the release of hormones necessary to conserve water and sodium within the body. In this review, the factors that determine output of sodium and fluid and those that determine "normal" input (i.e., matched to output) are addressed. For output, individual variability accompanied by dysregulation of homeostatic mechanisms may contribute to acute and/or chronic disease. To illustrate that point, the specific condition of salt-sensitive hypertension is discussed. For input, physical characteristics, physiological phenotypes, genetic and developmental influences, and cultural and environmental factors combine to result in a wide range of individual variability that, in humans, is compensated for by alterations in excretion.

AB - Physiological regulation of sodium and water intake and output is required for the maintenance of homeostasis. The behavioral and neuroendocrine mechanisms that govern fluid and salt balance are highly interdependent, with acute and chronic alterations in renal output tightly balanced by appropriate changes in thirst and, to a lesser extent in humans, sodium appetite. In healthy individuals, these tightly coupled mechanisms maintain extracellular fluid volume and body tonicity within a narrow homeostatic range by initiating ingestive behaviors and the release of hormones necessary to conserve water and sodium within the body. In this review, the factors that determine output of sodium and fluid and those that determine "normal" input (i.e., matched to output) are addressed. For output, individual variability accompanied by dysregulation of homeostatic mechanisms may contribute to acute and/or chronic disease. To illustrate that point, the specific condition of salt-sensitive hypertension is discussed. For input, physical characteristics, physiological phenotypes, genetic and developmental influences, and cultural and environmental factors combine to result in a wide range of individual variability that, in humans, is compensated for by alterations in excretion.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84965186001&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84965186001&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1093/nutrit/nuv033

DO - 10.1093/nutrit/nuv033

M3 - Article

C2 - 26290293

AN - SCOPUS:84965186001

VL - 73

SP - 73

EP - 82

JO - Nutrition Reviews

JF - Nutrition Reviews

SN - 0029-6643

ER -