Nonylphenol and octylphenol ethoxylates (NP(EO)n and OP(EO) n) are major toxicants in agrochemicals used around beehives. Here we developed a LC-MS method for analysis of NP(EO)3-13 and OP(EO) 3-13 oligomers in bee hive matrices. Less than 2 g of honey, pollen or wax were extracted using the QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe) approach. Recoveries for each oligomer in all matrices are between 75% and 111% at three spiked concentrations. The method proved to be rapid, precise and sensitive. Five honey, 10 pollen and 12 wax samples were collected and analysed. NP(EO)n was detected in every sample with concentrations ranging from 26 ppb to 10,239 ppb. Much higher NP(EO)n residues levels were found in wax followed by pollen than in honey. OP(EO)n concentrations on average were more than 10 times lower in pollen and wax. This method demonstrates a probable wide occurrence of alkylphenol ethoxylates in USA beehives.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Analytical Chemistry
- Food Science