Background Oral microbiome transplantation (OMT) is a novel concept of introducing health-associated oral microbiota into the oral cavity of a diseased patient. The premise is to reverse the state of oral dysbiosis, and restore the ecological balance to maintain a stable homeostasis with the host immune system. This study will assess the effectiveness, feasibility, and safety of OMT using an interdisciplinary approach. Methods/Design To find donors suitable for microbial transplantation, supragingival plaque samples will be collected from 600 healthy participants. Each sample (200μL) will subsequently be examined in two ways: 1) 100μL of the sample will undergo high-throughput 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing and shotgun sequencing to identify the composition and characterisation of a healthy supragingival microbiome, 2) the remaining 100μL of the plaque sample will be mixed with 25% artificial saliva medium and inoculated into a specialised in-vitro flow cell model containing a hydroxyapatite disk. To obtain sufficient donor plaque, the samples would be grown for 14 days and further analysed microscopically and sequenced to examine and confirm the growth and survival of the microbiota. Samples with the healthiest microbiota would then be incorporated in a hydrogel delivery vehicle to enable transplantation of the donor oral microbiota. The third step would be to test the effectiveness of OMT in caries and periodontitis animal models for efficacy and safety for the treatment of oral diseases. Discussion If OMTs are found to be successful, it can form a new treatment method for common oral diseases such as dental caries and periodontitis. OMTs may have the potential to modulate the oral microbiota and shift the ecological imbalances to a healthier state.
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