We are developing coal-to-liquid processes that differ from traditional direct and indirect liquefaction. Notably, they could be used to introduce coal-derived chemicals or coal into existing oil refinery operations. The present aim of this work is to develop a coal-based replacement for conventional jet fuel. One process involves blending naphthalene-indene products into light cycle oil, followed by hydrotreatment and fractionation. Sources of these materials could be coal tar from coke plans, tar from gasification, or solvent extracts of coals. Pilot-scale testing of this process indicates that a prototype fuel meets most of the current specifications for JP-8. Combustion tests in a turboshaft engine show emissions to be generally comparable to those from control experiments with JP-8. The second process involves addition of pulverized bituminous coal to the decant oil or atmospheric resid feed to a delayed coker. The liquid from the coker would be hydrotreated and fractionated to provide the desired products. The coke by-product has potential value as, for example, filler for the production of synthetic molded graphites.