Tissue adhesives play an important role in surgery to close wounds, seal tissues, and stop bleeding, but existing adhesives are costly, cytotoxic, or bond weakly to tissue. Inspired by the water-resistant adhesion of plant-derived tannins, we herein report a new family of bioadhesives derived from a facile, one-step Michael addition of tannic acid and gelatin under oxidizing conditions and crosslinked by silver nitrate. The oxidized polyphenol groups of tannic acid enable wet tissue adhesion through catecholamine-like chemistry, while both tannic acid and silver nanoparticles reduced from silver nitrate provide antimicrobial sources inherent within the polymeric network. These tannin-inspired gelatin bioadhesives are low-cost and readily scalable and eliminate the concerns of potential neurological effect brought by mussel-inspired strategy due to the inclusion of dopamine; variations in gelatin source (fish, bovine, or porcine) and tannic acid feeding ratios resulted in tunable gelation times (36 s–8 min), controllable degradation (up to 100% degradation within a month), considerable wet tissue adhesion strengths (up to 3.7 times to that of fibrin glue), excellent cytocompatibility, as well as antibacterial and antifungal properties. The innate properties of tannic acid as a natural phenolic crosslinker, molecular glue, and antimicrobial agent warrant a unique and significant approach to bioadhesive design. Statement of Significance: This manuscript describes the development of a new family of tannin-inspired antimicrobial bioadhesives derived from a facile, one-step Michael addition of tannic acid and gelatin under oxidizing conditions and crosslinked by silver nitrate. Our strategy is new and can be easily extended to other polymer systems, low-cost and readily scalable, and eliminate the concerns of potential neurological effect brought by mussel-inspired strategy due to the inclusion of dopamine. The tannin-inspired gelatin bioadhesives hold great promise for a number of applications in wound closure, tissue sealant, hemostasis, antimicrobial and cell/drug delivery, and would be interested to the readers from biomaterials, tissue engineering, and drug delivery area.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Biomedical Engineering
- Molecular Biology