Developmental and individual differences in girls' sex-typed activities in middle childhood and adolescence

Susan Marie McHale, Lilly Shanahan, Kimberly A. Updegraff, Ann C. Crouter, Alan Booth

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

37 Scopus citations


Girls' time in sex-typed leisure activities was studied across 2 years in middle childhood (n = 98, M = 8.2 years in Year 1), early adolescence (n = 106, M = 11.7 years), and middle adolescence (n = 86, M = 14.9 years). In annual home interviews, White middle-class girls, mothers, and fathers rated their gendered attitudes, interests, and personality qualities, and saliva samples were used to assess testosterone; activity data were collected in 7 nightly phone interviews. Girls spent more time in feminine than masculine activities except in early adolescence. Girls' and parents' personalities and interests predicted sex-typed activities at each developmental period, but associations between testosterone and activities emerged only in middle childhood.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1575-1593
Number of pages19
JournalChild development
Issue number5
StatePublished - Sep 1 2004


All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Education
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology

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