Developmental expression of stress response genes in Theobroma cacao leaves and their response to Nep1 treatment and a compatible infection by Phytophthora megakarya

Bryan A. Bailey, Hanhong Bae, Mary D. Strem, Gabriela Antúnez De Mayolo, Mark Guiltinan, Joseph A. Verica, Siela Maximova, John H. Bowers

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

32 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Developmental expression of stress response genes in Theobroma cacao leaves and their response to Nep1 and a compatible infection by Phytophthora megakarya were studied. Ten genes were selected to represent genes involved in defense (TcCaf-1, TcGlu1,3, TcChiB, TcCou-1, and TcPer-1), gene regulation (TcWRKY-1 and TcORFX-1), cell wall development (TcCou-1, TcPer-1, and TcGlu-1), or energy production (TcLhca-1 and TcrbcS). Leaf development was separated into unexpanded (UE), young red (YR), immature green (IG), and mature green (MG). Our data indicates that the constitutive defense mechanisms used by cacao leaves differ between different developmental stages. TcWRKY-1 and TcChiB were highly expressed in MG leaves, and TcPer-1, TcGlu-1, and TcCou-1 were highly expressed in YR leaves. TcGlu1,3 was highly expressed in UE and YR leaves, TcCaf-1 was highly expressed in UE leaves, and TcLhca-1 and TcrbcS were highly expressed in IG and MG leaves. NEP1 encodes the necrosis inducing protein Nep1 produced by Fusarium oxysporum and has orthologs in Phytophthora species. Nep1 caused cellular necrosis on MG leaves and young pods within 24 h of application. Necrosis was observed on YR leaves 10 days after treatment. Expression of TcWRKY-1, TcORFX-1, TcPer-1, and TcGlu-1 was enhanced and TcLhca-1 and TcrbcS were repressed in MG leaves after Nep1 treatment. Expression of TcWRKY-1 and TcORFX-1 was enhanced in YR leaves after Nep1 treatment. Infection of MG leaf disks by P. megakarya zoospores enhanced expression of TcGlu-1, TcWRKY-1, and TcPer-1 and repressed expression of TcChiB, TcLhca-1 and TcrbcS. Five of the six genes that were responsive to Nep1 were responsive to infection by P. megakarya. Susceptibility of T. cacao to P. megakarya includes altered plant gene expression and phytotoxic molecules like Nep1 may contribute to susceptibility.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)611-622
Number of pages12
JournalPlant Physiology and Biochemistry
Volume43
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 1 2005

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Phytophthora
Theobroma cacao
Cacao
stress response
Infection
Necrosis
infection
Genes
leaves
genes
Plant Genes
Fusarium
necrosis
Cell Wall
Phytophthora megakarya
Gene Expression
immatures
zoospores
leaf development
Fusarium oxysporum

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Physiology
  • Genetics
  • Plant Science

Cite this

Bailey, Bryan A. ; Bae, Hanhong ; Strem, Mary D. ; Antúnez De Mayolo, Gabriela ; Guiltinan, Mark ; Verica, Joseph A. ; Maximova, Siela ; Bowers, John H. / Developmental expression of stress response genes in Theobroma cacao leaves and their response to Nep1 treatment and a compatible infection by Phytophthora megakarya. In: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry. 2005 ; Vol. 43, No. 6. pp. 611-622.
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abstract = "Developmental expression of stress response genes in Theobroma cacao leaves and their response to Nep1 and a compatible infection by Phytophthora megakarya were studied. Ten genes were selected to represent genes involved in defense (TcCaf-1, TcGlu1,3, TcChiB, TcCou-1, and TcPer-1), gene regulation (TcWRKY-1 and TcORFX-1), cell wall development (TcCou-1, TcPer-1, and TcGlu-1), or energy production (TcLhca-1 and TcrbcS). Leaf development was separated into unexpanded (UE), young red (YR), immature green (IG), and mature green (MG). Our data indicates that the constitutive defense mechanisms used by cacao leaves differ between different developmental stages. TcWRKY-1 and TcChiB were highly expressed in MG leaves, and TcPer-1, TcGlu-1, and TcCou-1 were highly expressed in YR leaves. TcGlu1,3 was highly expressed in UE and YR leaves, TcCaf-1 was highly expressed in UE leaves, and TcLhca-1 and TcrbcS were highly expressed in IG and MG leaves. NEP1 encodes the necrosis inducing protein Nep1 produced by Fusarium oxysporum and has orthologs in Phytophthora species. Nep1 caused cellular necrosis on MG leaves and young pods within 24 h of application. Necrosis was observed on YR leaves 10 days after treatment. Expression of TcWRKY-1, TcORFX-1, TcPer-1, and TcGlu-1 was enhanced and TcLhca-1 and TcrbcS were repressed in MG leaves after Nep1 treatment. Expression of TcWRKY-1 and TcORFX-1 was enhanced in YR leaves after Nep1 treatment. Infection of MG leaf disks by P. megakarya zoospores enhanced expression of TcGlu-1, TcWRKY-1, and TcPer-1 and repressed expression of TcChiB, TcLhca-1 and TcrbcS. Five of the six genes that were responsive to Nep1 were responsive to infection by P. megakarya. Susceptibility of T. cacao to P. megakarya includes altered plant gene expression and phytotoxic molecules like Nep1 may contribute to susceptibility.",
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Developmental expression of stress response genes in Theobroma cacao leaves and their response to Nep1 treatment and a compatible infection by Phytophthora megakarya. / Bailey, Bryan A.; Bae, Hanhong; Strem, Mary D.; Antúnez De Mayolo, Gabriela; Guiltinan, Mark; Verica, Joseph A.; Maximova, Siela; Bowers, John H.

In: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Vol. 43, No. 6, 01.06.2005, p. 611-622.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Developmental expression of stress response genes in Theobroma cacao leaves and their response to Nep1 treatment and a compatible infection by Phytophthora megakarya

AU - Bailey, Bryan A.

AU - Bae, Hanhong

AU - Strem, Mary D.

AU - Antúnez De Mayolo, Gabriela

AU - Guiltinan, Mark

AU - Verica, Joseph A.

AU - Maximova, Siela

AU - Bowers, John H.

PY - 2005/6/1

Y1 - 2005/6/1

N2 - Developmental expression of stress response genes in Theobroma cacao leaves and their response to Nep1 and a compatible infection by Phytophthora megakarya were studied. Ten genes were selected to represent genes involved in defense (TcCaf-1, TcGlu1,3, TcChiB, TcCou-1, and TcPer-1), gene regulation (TcWRKY-1 and TcORFX-1), cell wall development (TcCou-1, TcPer-1, and TcGlu-1), or energy production (TcLhca-1 and TcrbcS). Leaf development was separated into unexpanded (UE), young red (YR), immature green (IG), and mature green (MG). Our data indicates that the constitutive defense mechanisms used by cacao leaves differ between different developmental stages. TcWRKY-1 and TcChiB were highly expressed in MG leaves, and TcPer-1, TcGlu-1, and TcCou-1 were highly expressed in YR leaves. TcGlu1,3 was highly expressed in UE and YR leaves, TcCaf-1 was highly expressed in UE leaves, and TcLhca-1 and TcrbcS were highly expressed in IG and MG leaves. NEP1 encodes the necrosis inducing protein Nep1 produced by Fusarium oxysporum and has orthologs in Phytophthora species. Nep1 caused cellular necrosis on MG leaves and young pods within 24 h of application. Necrosis was observed on YR leaves 10 days after treatment. Expression of TcWRKY-1, TcORFX-1, TcPer-1, and TcGlu-1 was enhanced and TcLhca-1 and TcrbcS were repressed in MG leaves after Nep1 treatment. Expression of TcWRKY-1 and TcORFX-1 was enhanced in YR leaves after Nep1 treatment. Infection of MG leaf disks by P. megakarya zoospores enhanced expression of TcGlu-1, TcWRKY-1, and TcPer-1 and repressed expression of TcChiB, TcLhca-1 and TcrbcS. Five of the six genes that were responsive to Nep1 were responsive to infection by P. megakarya. Susceptibility of T. cacao to P. megakarya includes altered plant gene expression and phytotoxic molecules like Nep1 may contribute to susceptibility.

AB - Developmental expression of stress response genes in Theobroma cacao leaves and their response to Nep1 and a compatible infection by Phytophthora megakarya were studied. Ten genes were selected to represent genes involved in defense (TcCaf-1, TcGlu1,3, TcChiB, TcCou-1, and TcPer-1), gene regulation (TcWRKY-1 and TcORFX-1), cell wall development (TcCou-1, TcPer-1, and TcGlu-1), or energy production (TcLhca-1 and TcrbcS). Leaf development was separated into unexpanded (UE), young red (YR), immature green (IG), and mature green (MG). Our data indicates that the constitutive defense mechanisms used by cacao leaves differ between different developmental stages. TcWRKY-1 and TcChiB were highly expressed in MG leaves, and TcPer-1, TcGlu-1, and TcCou-1 were highly expressed in YR leaves. TcGlu1,3 was highly expressed in UE and YR leaves, TcCaf-1 was highly expressed in UE leaves, and TcLhca-1 and TcrbcS were highly expressed in IG and MG leaves. NEP1 encodes the necrosis inducing protein Nep1 produced by Fusarium oxysporum and has orthologs in Phytophthora species. Nep1 caused cellular necrosis on MG leaves and young pods within 24 h of application. Necrosis was observed on YR leaves 10 days after treatment. Expression of TcWRKY-1, TcORFX-1, TcPer-1, and TcGlu-1 was enhanced and TcLhca-1 and TcrbcS were repressed in MG leaves after Nep1 treatment. Expression of TcWRKY-1 and TcORFX-1 was enhanced in YR leaves after Nep1 treatment. Infection of MG leaf disks by P. megakarya zoospores enhanced expression of TcGlu-1, TcWRKY-1, and TcPer-1 and repressed expression of TcChiB, TcLhca-1 and TcrbcS. Five of the six genes that were responsive to Nep1 were responsive to infection by P. megakarya. Susceptibility of T. cacao to P. megakarya includes altered plant gene expression and phytotoxic molecules like Nep1 may contribute to susceptibility.

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