Developments in pharmacotherapy for tobacco dependence: Past, present and future

Jonathan Foulds, Michael B. Steinberg, Jill M. Williams, Douglas M. Ziedonis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

67 Scopus citations

Abstract

In the mid-1970s there were no effective pharmacological treatments for tobacco dependence. The invention of nicotine gum was a major treatment advance and also greatly helped our understanding of the nature of tobacco dependence. There are now eight effective pharmacotherapies (nicotine gum, patch, nasal spray, inhaler, lozenge/tablet, bupropion, nortriptyline and clonidine) available to aid smoking cessation. Other non-nicotine agents that show promise are under investigation, including glucose, rimonabant, selegiline and varenicline. Greater knowledge of the mechanisms of action of the effective non-nicotine agents should lead to better understanding of the nature of tobacco dependence. Future research into optimal treatments should examine long-term combination pharmacotherapy combined with improved psychosocial support that is partly designed to enhance medication compliance. In addition, there is a need for studies designed to evaluate the efficacy of pharmacotherapies in populations such as youth, pregnant smokers and smokers with co-occurring mental health problems.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)59-71
Number of pages13
JournalDrug and Alcohol Review
Volume25
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 2006

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Health(social science)

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