We studied pupal diapause maintenance and termination in Endopiza viteana, a pest of commercially grown grapes. We observed considerable variation in diapause intensity, which ranged from 5.5 to 10 mo under natural temperatures and photoperiods. Adult males tended to emerge from diapause slightly earlier than females, suggesting that E. viteana may be protandrous. In the field, low temperatures maintained diapause in overwintering pupae, and adult emergence began at ≈148 degree-days accumulated from 1 January. Photoperiod did not influence diapause termination in E. viteana. Overall, most adults emerged in spring at roughly the same time, regardless of the date at which pupae entered diapause; however, emergence was extended over a 6-wk period. Moreover, eggs oviposited by late-emerging females may experience photoperiods that would lead to diapause in pupae. Under natural conditions, extended adult emergence may result in overlapping generations; accordingly, coordinating the timing of control tactics with peak oviposition is very difficult for this insect pest.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
- Insect Science