Diets low in saturated fat with different unsaturated fatty acid profiles similarly increase serum-mediated cholesterol efflux from THP-1 macrophages in a population with or at risk for metabolic syndrome

The Canola Oil Multicenter Intervention Trial

Xiaoran Liu, Josephine Garban, Peter J. Jones, John Patrick Vanden Heuvel, Benoît Lamarche, David J. Jenkins, Philip W. Connelly, Patrick Couture, Shuaihua Pu, Jennifer Anne Fleming, Sheila Grace West, Penny Margaret Kris-Etherton

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Background: Cholesterol efflux plays an important role in preventing atherosclerosis progression. Vegetable oils with varying unsaturated fatty acid profiles favorably affect multiple cardiovascular disease risk factors; however, their effects on cholesterol efflux remain unclear. Objective: The objectives of this study were to examine the effects of diets low in saturated fatty acids (SFAs) with varying unsaturated fatty acid profiles on serum-mediated cholesterol efflux and its association with the plasma lipophilic index and central obesity. Methods: The present study is a randomized, crossover, controlled-feeding study. Participants [men: n = 50; women: n = 51; mean ± SE age: 49.5 ± 1.2 y; body mass index (in kg/m 2 ): 29.4 ± 0.4] at risk for or with metabolic syndrome (MetS) were randomly assigned to 5 isocaloric diets containing the treatment oils: canola oil, high oleic acid-canola oil, DHA-enriched high oleic acid-canola oil, corn oil and safflower oil blend, and flax oil and safflower oil blend. These treatment oils were incorporated into smoothies that participants consumed 2 times/d. For a 3000-kcal diet, 60 g of treatment oil was required to provide 18% of total energy per day. Each diet period was 4 wk followed by a 2- to 4-wk washout period. We quantified cholesterol efflux capacity with a validated ex vivo high-throughput cholesterol efflux assay. Statistical analyses were performed with the use of the SAS mixed-model procedure. Results: The 5 diets increased serum-mediated cholesterol efflux capacity from THP-1 macrophages similarly by 39%, 34%, 55%, 49% and 51%, respectively, compared with baseline (P < 0.05 for all). Waist circumference and abdominal adiposity were negatively correlated with serum-mediated cholesterol efflux capacity (r = -0.25, P = 0.01, r = -0.33, P = 0.02, respectively). Conclusion: Diets lowin SFAs with different monounsaturated fatty acid and polyunsaturated fatty acid profiles improved serum-mediated cholesterol efflux capacity in individuals with or at risk for MetS. This mechanism may account, in part, for the cardiovascular disease benefits of diets low in SFAs and high in unsaturated fatty acids. Importantly, central obesity is inversely associated with cholesterol efflux capacity.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)721-728
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Nutrition
Volume148
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - May 1 2018

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Unsaturated Fatty Acids
Multicenter Studies
Fats
Macrophages
Cholesterol
Diet
Serum
Population
Oils
Safflower Oil
Fatty Acids
Abdominal Obesity
Oleic Acid
Cardiovascular Diseases
canola oil
Flax
Monounsaturated Fatty Acids
Corn Oil
Plant Oils
Adiposity

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Nutrition and Dietetics

Cite this

@article{9278495e97c143e589b754234cef88cb,
title = "Diets low in saturated fat with different unsaturated fatty acid profiles similarly increase serum-mediated cholesterol efflux from THP-1 macrophages in a population with or at risk for metabolic syndrome: The Canola Oil Multicenter Intervention Trial",
abstract = "Background: Cholesterol efflux plays an important role in preventing atherosclerosis progression. Vegetable oils with varying unsaturated fatty acid profiles favorably affect multiple cardiovascular disease risk factors; however, their effects on cholesterol efflux remain unclear. Objective: The objectives of this study were to examine the effects of diets low in saturated fatty acids (SFAs) with varying unsaturated fatty acid profiles on serum-mediated cholesterol efflux and its association with the plasma lipophilic index and central obesity. Methods: The present study is a randomized, crossover, controlled-feeding study. Participants [men: n = 50; women: n = 51; mean ± SE age: 49.5 ± 1.2 y; body mass index (in kg/m 2 ): 29.4 ± 0.4] at risk for or with metabolic syndrome (MetS) were randomly assigned to 5 isocaloric diets containing the treatment oils: canola oil, high oleic acid-canola oil, DHA-enriched high oleic acid-canola oil, corn oil and safflower oil blend, and flax oil and safflower oil blend. These treatment oils were incorporated into smoothies that participants consumed 2 times/d. For a 3000-kcal diet, 60 g of treatment oil was required to provide 18{\%} of total energy per day. Each diet period was 4 wk followed by a 2- to 4-wk washout period. We quantified cholesterol efflux capacity with a validated ex vivo high-throughput cholesterol efflux assay. Statistical analyses were performed with the use of the SAS mixed-model procedure. Results: The 5 diets increased serum-mediated cholesterol efflux capacity from THP-1 macrophages similarly by 39{\%}, 34{\%}, 55{\%}, 49{\%} and 51{\%}, respectively, compared with baseline (P < 0.05 for all). Waist circumference and abdominal adiposity were negatively correlated with serum-mediated cholesterol efflux capacity (r = -0.25, P = 0.01, r = -0.33, P = 0.02, respectively). Conclusion: Diets lowin SFAs with different monounsaturated fatty acid and polyunsaturated fatty acid profiles improved serum-mediated cholesterol efflux capacity in individuals with or at risk for MetS. This mechanism may account, in part, for the cardiovascular disease benefits of diets low in SFAs and high in unsaturated fatty acids. Importantly, central obesity is inversely associated with cholesterol efflux capacity.",
author = "Xiaoran Liu and Josephine Garban and Jones, {Peter J.} and {Vanden Heuvel}, {John Patrick} and Beno{\^i}t Lamarche and Jenkins, {David J.} and Connelly, {Philip W.} and Patrick Couture and Shuaihua Pu and Fleming, {Jennifer Anne} and West, {Sheila Grace} and Kris-Etherton, {Penny Margaret}",
year = "2018",
month = "5",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1093/jn/nxy040",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "148",
pages = "721--728",
journal = "Journal of Nutrition",
issn = "0022-3166",
publisher = "American Society for Nutrition",
number = "5",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Diets low in saturated fat with different unsaturated fatty acid profiles similarly increase serum-mediated cholesterol efflux from THP-1 macrophages in a population with or at risk for metabolic syndrome

T2 - The Canola Oil Multicenter Intervention Trial

AU - Liu, Xiaoran

AU - Garban, Josephine

AU - Jones, Peter J.

AU - Vanden Heuvel, John Patrick

AU - Lamarche, Benoît

AU - Jenkins, David J.

AU - Connelly, Philip W.

AU - Couture, Patrick

AU - Pu, Shuaihua

AU - Fleming, Jennifer Anne

AU - West, Sheila Grace

AU - Kris-Etherton, Penny Margaret

PY - 2018/5/1

Y1 - 2018/5/1

N2 - Background: Cholesterol efflux plays an important role in preventing atherosclerosis progression. Vegetable oils with varying unsaturated fatty acid profiles favorably affect multiple cardiovascular disease risk factors; however, their effects on cholesterol efflux remain unclear. Objective: The objectives of this study were to examine the effects of diets low in saturated fatty acids (SFAs) with varying unsaturated fatty acid profiles on serum-mediated cholesterol efflux and its association with the plasma lipophilic index and central obesity. Methods: The present study is a randomized, crossover, controlled-feeding study. Participants [men: n = 50; women: n = 51; mean ± SE age: 49.5 ± 1.2 y; body mass index (in kg/m 2 ): 29.4 ± 0.4] at risk for or with metabolic syndrome (MetS) were randomly assigned to 5 isocaloric diets containing the treatment oils: canola oil, high oleic acid-canola oil, DHA-enriched high oleic acid-canola oil, corn oil and safflower oil blend, and flax oil and safflower oil blend. These treatment oils were incorporated into smoothies that participants consumed 2 times/d. For a 3000-kcal diet, 60 g of treatment oil was required to provide 18% of total energy per day. Each diet period was 4 wk followed by a 2- to 4-wk washout period. We quantified cholesterol efflux capacity with a validated ex vivo high-throughput cholesterol efflux assay. Statistical analyses were performed with the use of the SAS mixed-model procedure. Results: The 5 diets increased serum-mediated cholesterol efflux capacity from THP-1 macrophages similarly by 39%, 34%, 55%, 49% and 51%, respectively, compared with baseline (P < 0.05 for all). Waist circumference and abdominal adiposity were negatively correlated with serum-mediated cholesterol efflux capacity (r = -0.25, P = 0.01, r = -0.33, P = 0.02, respectively). Conclusion: Diets lowin SFAs with different monounsaturated fatty acid and polyunsaturated fatty acid profiles improved serum-mediated cholesterol efflux capacity in individuals with or at risk for MetS. This mechanism may account, in part, for the cardiovascular disease benefits of diets low in SFAs and high in unsaturated fatty acids. Importantly, central obesity is inversely associated with cholesterol efflux capacity.

AB - Background: Cholesterol efflux plays an important role in preventing atherosclerosis progression. Vegetable oils with varying unsaturated fatty acid profiles favorably affect multiple cardiovascular disease risk factors; however, their effects on cholesterol efflux remain unclear. Objective: The objectives of this study were to examine the effects of diets low in saturated fatty acids (SFAs) with varying unsaturated fatty acid profiles on serum-mediated cholesterol efflux and its association with the plasma lipophilic index and central obesity. Methods: The present study is a randomized, crossover, controlled-feeding study. Participants [men: n = 50; women: n = 51; mean ± SE age: 49.5 ± 1.2 y; body mass index (in kg/m 2 ): 29.4 ± 0.4] at risk for or with metabolic syndrome (MetS) were randomly assigned to 5 isocaloric diets containing the treatment oils: canola oil, high oleic acid-canola oil, DHA-enriched high oleic acid-canola oil, corn oil and safflower oil blend, and flax oil and safflower oil blend. These treatment oils were incorporated into smoothies that participants consumed 2 times/d. For a 3000-kcal diet, 60 g of treatment oil was required to provide 18% of total energy per day. Each diet period was 4 wk followed by a 2- to 4-wk washout period. We quantified cholesterol efflux capacity with a validated ex vivo high-throughput cholesterol efflux assay. Statistical analyses were performed with the use of the SAS mixed-model procedure. Results: The 5 diets increased serum-mediated cholesterol efflux capacity from THP-1 macrophages similarly by 39%, 34%, 55%, 49% and 51%, respectively, compared with baseline (P < 0.05 for all). Waist circumference and abdominal adiposity were negatively correlated with serum-mediated cholesterol efflux capacity (r = -0.25, P = 0.01, r = -0.33, P = 0.02, respectively). Conclusion: Diets lowin SFAs with different monounsaturated fatty acid and polyunsaturated fatty acid profiles improved serum-mediated cholesterol efflux capacity in individuals with or at risk for MetS. This mechanism may account, in part, for the cardiovascular disease benefits of diets low in SFAs and high in unsaturated fatty acids. Importantly, central obesity is inversely associated with cholesterol efflux capacity.

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U2 - 10.1093/jn/nxy040

DO - 10.1093/jn/nxy040

M3 - Article

VL - 148

SP - 721

EP - 728

JO - Journal of Nutrition

JF - Journal of Nutrition

SN - 0022-3166

IS - 5

ER -