The difference in the resistance degradation behavior was investigated between fixed valence acceptor (Mg) and the variable valence acceptor (Mn)-doped BaTiO3 ceramics with an increase of each acceptor concentration. Coarse-grained specimens with uniform grain sizes and different acceptor concentrations were prepared. In the case of Mg-doped BaTiO3, the time to degradation systematically decreased with the increase in Mg concentration. In contrast, there is a systematically increased time to degradation with the increase in Mn concentration in Mn-doped BaTiO3. The fast degradation by the increase in Mg concentration directly corresponded to an increase in the Warburg impedance and ionic transference number (t ion) associated with an increase in oxygen vacancy concentration ([VO]). On the other hand, no distinct Warburg impedance or ionic conduction contribution could be observed with the increase in Mn concentration. It is supposed that the increase in [VO] is negligible in spite of the increase in acceptor Mn concentration, when it is compared to Mg-doped BaTiO3. The much lower [VO] and more dominant electron/hole trapping effect due to multivalence nature of Mn are supposed to cause such a contrary degradation behavior between Mg and Mn-doped BaTiO 3. Reoxidation in a slightly reducing atmosphere (N2) showed better resistance to degradation behavior than in a oxidizing air atmosphere in both Mg and Mn-doped BaTiO3, which is anticipated to be an increase in the electron/hole trapping sites. All these behaviors could be explained by the low temperature defect chemical model that shows difference in the defect structure between Mg and Mn-doped BaTiO3, and its dependence on the oxygen partial pressure (p O2) during reoxidation and cooling. Not only the [VO], but also the density of electron/hole trap sites, are believed to be crucial in controlling resistance degradation.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Physics and Astronomy(all)