Differential effects of epinephrine, norepinephrine, and indole on Escherichia coli O157:H7 chemotaxis, colonization, and gene expression

Tarun Bansal, Derek Englert, Jintae Lee, Manjunath Hegde, Thomas Keith Wood, Arul Jayaraman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

181 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

During infection in the gastrointestinal tract, enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 is exposed to a wide range of signaling molecules, including the eukaryotic hormones epinephrine and norepinephrine, and bacterial signal molecules such as indole. Since these signaling molecules have been shown to be involved in the regulation of phenotypes such as motility and virulence that are crucial for EHEC infections, we hypothesized that these molecules also govern the initial recognition of the large intestine environment and attachment to the host cell surface. Here, we report that, compared to indole, epinephrine and norepinephrine exert divergent effects on EHEC chemotaxis, motility, biofilm formation, gene expression, and colonization of HeLa cells. Using a novel two-fluorophore chemotaxis assay, it was found that EHEC is attracted to epinephrine and norepinephrine while it is repelled by indole. In addition, epinephrine and norepinephrine also increased EHEC motility and biofilm formation while indole attenuated these phenotypes. DNA microarray analysis of surface-associated EHEC indicated that epinephrine/norepinephrine up-regulated the expression of genes involved in surface colonization and virulence while exposure to indole decreased their expression. The gene expression data also suggested that autoinducer 2 uptake was repressed upon exposure to epinephrine/norepinephrine but not indole. In vitro adherence experiments confirmed that epinephrine and norepinephrine increased attachment to epithelial cells while indole decreased adherence. Taken together, these results suggest that epinephrine and norepinephrine increase EHEC infection while indole attenuates the process.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)4597-4607
Number of pages11
JournalInfection and Immunity
Volume75
Issue number9
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 1 2007

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Escherichia coli O157
Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli
Chemotaxis
Epinephrine
Norepinephrine
Gene Expression
Escherichia coli Infections
Biofilms
Virulence
Phenotype
indole
Large Intestine
Microarray Analysis
Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
HeLa Cells
Gastrointestinal Tract
Epithelial Cells
Hormones
Infection

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Parasitology
  • Microbiology
  • Immunology
  • Infectious Diseases

Cite this

Bansal, Tarun ; Englert, Derek ; Lee, Jintae ; Hegde, Manjunath ; Wood, Thomas Keith ; Jayaraman, Arul. / Differential effects of epinephrine, norepinephrine, and indole on Escherichia coli O157:H7 chemotaxis, colonization, and gene expression. In: Infection and Immunity. 2007 ; Vol. 75, No. 9. pp. 4597-4607.
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Differential effects of epinephrine, norepinephrine, and indole on Escherichia coli O157:H7 chemotaxis, colonization, and gene expression. / Bansal, Tarun; Englert, Derek; Lee, Jintae; Hegde, Manjunath; Wood, Thomas Keith; Jayaraman, Arul.

In: Infection and Immunity, Vol. 75, No. 9, 01.09.2007, p. 4597-4607.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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