Insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-1 (BP-1) is a multifunctional protein that binds IGF-I in solution and integrins on the cell surface. BP-1 is overexpressed during catabolic illnesses, and the protein accumulates in skeletal muscle. To define a potential physiological role for BP-1 in regulating muscle protein balance, we have examined the effect of IGF-I and BP-1 on protein synthesis and degradation in human skeletal muscle cells. IGF-I-stimulated protein synthesis by 20%, and this was completely inhibited by either phosphorylated or nonphosphorylated BP-1. Half-maximal inhibition of protein synthesis occurred at a molar ratio of BP-1 to IGF-I of 1.5:1. BP-1 failed to form a complex with a truncated form of IGF-I (desIGF-I), and consequently, BP-1 failed to inhibit the ability of desIGF-I to stimulate protein synthesis. IGF-I and BP-1 dose-dependently inhibited protein degradation individually, and both BP-1 phosphovariants failed to block the ability of IGF-I to do the same. Blocking integrin receptor occupancy with the integrin antagonist echistatin blunted the ability of BP-1 to inhibit protein degradation, but had no significant effect on IGF-I-mediated changes in protein synthesis or degradation. The extracellular matrix protein vitronectin also inhibited protein degradation, but vitronectin receptor antibodies failed to block BP-1 action. In contrast, antibodies to the β1 integrin subunit blocked BP-1-mediated inhibition of protein degradation. Rapamycin inhibited IGF-I-dependent protein synthesis, but not the ability of IGF-I to inhibit proteolysis. In contrast, rapamycin completely blocked the ability of BP-1 to inhibit proteolysis. Our results demonstrate that BP-1 inhibits IGF-I-mediated protein synthesis by binding to IGF-I. BP-1, acting independently of IGF-I, inhibits protein degradation. The IGF-independent response occurs via β1 integrin binding and stimulation of a rapamycin-sensitive signal transduction pathway.
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