Differential ligand-selective control of opposing enzymatic activities within a bifunctional c-di-GMP enzyme

Dayna C. Patterson, Myrrh Perez Ruiz, Hyerin Yoon, Johnnie A. Walker, Jean Paul Armache, Neela H. Yennawar, Emily E. Weinert

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3 Scopus citations


Cyclic dimeric guanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP) serves as a second messenger that modulates bacterial cellular processes, including biofilm formation. While proteins containing both cdi- GMP synthesizing (GGDEF) and c-di-GMP hydrolyzing (EAL) domains are widely predicted in bacterial genomes, it is poorly understood how domains with opposing enzymatic activity are regulated within a single polypeptide. Herein, we report the characterization of a globin-coupled sensor protein (GCS) from Paenibacillus dendritiformis (DcpG) with bifunctional c-di-GMP enzymatic activity. DcpG contains a regulatory sensor globin domain linked to diguanylate cyclase (GGDEF) and phosphodiesterase (EAL) domains that are differentially regulated by gas binding to the heme; GGDEF domain activity is activated by the Fe(II)-NO state of the globin domain, while EAL domain activity is activated by the Fe(II)-O2 state. The in vitro activity of DcpG is mimicked in vivo by the biofilm formation of P. dendritiformis in response to gaseous environment, with nitric oxide conditions leading to the greatest amount of biofilm formation. The ability of DcpG to differentially control GGDEF and EAL domain activity in response to ligand binding is likely due to the unusual properties of the globin domain, including rapid ligand dissociation rates and high midpoint potentials. Using structural information from small-angle X-ray scattering and negative stain electron microscopy studies, we developed a structural model of DcpG, providing information about the regulatory mechanism. These studies provide information about full-length GCS protein architecture and insight into the mechanism by which a single regulatory domain can selectively control output domains with opposing enzymatic activities.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere2100657118
JournalProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Issue number36
StatePublished - Sep 7 2021

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General


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