For centuries, stone disease has been a common health problem - in fact, one of the first surgeries performed on humans was for stones - and traditional open surgery was utilized to manage the problems it caused.1 Stone disease is still common today, but the pattern of practice in stone management has undergone a revolution in the last few decades. Nowadays, open surgery for stone disease is considered obsolete and has been almost totally abandoned.2 The biggest blow to open stone surgery (OSS) occurred when extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) was applied successfully by Chaussy in Berlin.3 Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) and ureteroscopic lithotripsy (URL) were also great steps forward, and these procedures have major roles in managing large renal and ureteral stone disease in most parts of the world today. Pneumolithotripsy and laser lithotripsy technologies were another important achievement in dealing with stone disease during PCNL and URL. It is used commonly in many countries due to its efficacy, and especially because of its cost effectiveness. The introduction of flexible instruments also has facilitated navigation through the collecting system. Disposable flexible endoscopes seem to be promising alternative to the costly fiberoptic ones, and solve problems related to their cost and maintenance. All of the above measures, which are today referred to as “endourology,” have resulted in putting the knife aside in almost all cases of stone disease.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Title of host publication||Difficult Conditions in Laparoscopic Urologic Surgery|
|Publisher||Springer International Publishing|
|Number of pages||15|
|State||Published - Jan 1 2018|
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes