Diffuse X-ray emission in a deep Chandra mage of the galactic center

M. P. Muno, F. K. Baganoff, M. W. Bautz, E. D. Feigelson, G. P. Garmre, M. R. Morris, S. Park, G. R. Ricker, L. K. Townsley

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Abstract

We examine the spectrum of diffuse emission detected in the 17′ × 17′ field around Sgr A* during 625 ks of Chandra observations. The spectrum exhibits He-like and H-like lines from Si, S, Ar, Ca, and Fe that are consistent with an origin in a two-temperature plasma, as well as a prominent low-ionization Fe Ka line. The cooler, kT ≈ 0.8 keV plasma differs in surface brightness across the image in the range (0.2-1.8) × 10-13 ergs cm-2 s-1 arcmin-2 (observed, 2-8 keV). This soft plasma is probably heated by supernovae, along with a small contribution from the winds of massive Wolf-Rayet (W-R) and O stars. The radiative cooling rate of the soft plasma within the inner 20 pc of the Galaxy could be balanced by 1% of the kinetic energy of one supernova every 3 × 105 yr. The hotter, kT ≈ 8 keV component is more spatially uniform, with a surface brightness of (1.5-2.6) × 10 -13 ergs cm-2 s-1 arcmin-2 (observed, 2-8 keV). The intensity of the hard plasma is correlated with that of the soft, but they are probably only indirectly related, because neither supernova remnants nor W-R/O stars are observed to produce thermal plasma hotter than kT ≈ 3 keV. Moreover, a kT ≈ 8 keV plasma would be too hot to be bound to the Galactic center and therefore would form a slow wind or fountain of plasma. The energy required to sustain such a freely expanding plasma within the inner 20 pc of the Galaxy is ∼ 1040 ergs s -1. This corresponds to the entire kinetic energy of one supernova every 3000 yr, which is unreasonably high. However, alternative explanations for the kT ≈ 8 keV diffuse emission are equally unsatisfying. The hard X-rays are unlikely to result from undetected point sources, because no known population of stellar objects is numerous enough to account for the observed surface brightness. Neither is there evidence that nonthermal mechanisms for producing the hard emission are operating, as the expected shifts in the line energies and ratios from their collisional-eqiulibrium values are not observed. We are left to conclude either that there is a significant shortcoming in our understanding of the mechanisms that heat the interstellar medium or that a population of faint (<1031 ergs s-1) hard X-ray sources that is a factor of 10 more numerous than cataclysmic variables remains to be discovered.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)326-342
Number of pages17
JournalAstrophysical Journal
Volume613
Issue number1 I
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 20 2004

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plasma
erg
x rays
supernovae
O stars
Wolf-Rayet stars
brightness
kinetic energy
galaxies
H lines
cataclysmic variables
thermal plasmas
plasma temperature
supernova remnants
coolers
massive stars
point sources
point source
energy
cooling

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science

Cite this

Muno, M. P. ; Baganoff, F. K. ; Bautz, M. W. ; Feigelson, E. D. ; Garmre, G. P. ; Morris, M. R. ; Park, S. ; Ricker, G. R. ; Townsley, L. K. / Diffuse X-ray emission in a deep Chandra mage of the galactic center. In: Astrophysical Journal. 2004 ; Vol. 613, No. 1 I. pp. 326-342.
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abstract = "We examine the spectrum of diffuse emission detected in the 17′ × 17′ field around Sgr A* during 625 ks of Chandra observations. The spectrum exhibits He-like and H-like lines from Si, S, Ar, Ca, and Fe that are consistent with an origin in a two-temperature plasma, as well as a prominent low-ionization Fe Ka line. The cooler, kT ≈ 0.8 keV plasma differs in surface brightness across the image in the range (0.2-1.8) × 10-13 ergs cm-2 s-1 arcmin-2 (observed, 2-8 keV). This soft plasma is probably heated by supernovae, along with a small contribution from the winds of massive Wolf-Rayet (W-R) and O stars. The radiative cooling rate of the soft plasma within the inner 20 pc of the Galaxy could be balanced by 1{\%} of the kinetic energy of one supernova every 3 × 105 yr. The hotter, kT ≈ 8 keV component is more spatially uniform, with a surface brightness of (1.5-2.6) × 10 -13 ergs cm-2 s-1 arcmin-2 (observed, 2-8 keV). The intensity of the hard plasma is correlated with that of the soft, but they are probably only indirectly related, because neither supernova remnants nor W-R/O stars are observed to produce thermal plasma hotter than kT ≈ 3 keV. Moreover, a kT ≈ 8 keV plasma would be too hot to be bound to the Galactic center and therefore would form a slow wind or fountain of plasma. The energy required to sustain such a freely expanding plasma within the inner 20 pc of the Galaxy is ∼ 1040 ergs s -1. This corresponds to the entire kinetic energy of one supernova every 3000 yr, which is unreasonably high. However, alternative explanations for the kT ≈ 8 keV diffuse emission are equally unsatisfying. The hard X-rays are unlikely to result from undetected point sources, because no known population of stellar objects is numerous enough to account for the observed surface brightness. Neither is there evidence that nonthermal mechanisms for producing the hard emission are operating, as the expected shifts in the line energies and ratios from their collisional-eqiulibrium values are not observed. We are left to conclude either that there is a significant shortcoming in our understanding of the mechanisms that heat the interstellar medium or that a population of faint (<1031 ergs s-1) hard X-ray sources that is a factor of 10 more numerous than cataclysmic variables remains to be discovered.",
author = "Muno, {M. P.} and Baganoff, {F. K.} and Bautz, {M. W.} and Feigelson, {E. D.} and Garmre, {G. P.} and Morris, {M. R.} and S. Park and Ricker, {G. R.} and Townsley, {L. K.}",
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Muno, MP, Baganoff, FK, Bautz, MW, Feigelson, ED, Garmre, GP, Morris, MR, Park, S, Ricker, GR & Townsley, LK 2004, 'Diffuse X-ray emission in a deep Chandra mage of the galactic center', Astrophysical Journal, vol. 613, no. 1 I, pp. 326-342. https://doi.org/10.1086/422865

Diffuse X-ray emission in a deep Chandra mage of the galactic center. / Muno, M. P.; Baganoff, F. K.; Bautz, M. W.; Feigelson, E. D.; Garmre, G. P.; Morris, M. R.; Park, S.; Ricker, G. R.; Townsley, L. K.

In: Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 613, No. 1 I, 20.09.2004, p. 326-342.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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N2 - We examine the spectrum of diffuse emission detected in the 17′ × 17′ field around Sgr A* during 625 ks of Chandra observations. The spectrum exhibits He-like and H-like lines from Si, S, Ar, Ca, and Fe that are consistent with an origin in a two-temperature plasma, as well as a prominent low-ionization Fe Ka line. The cooler, kT ≈ 0.8 keV plasma differs in surface brightness across the image in the range (0.2-1.8) × 10-13 ergs cm-2 s-1 arcmin-2 (observed, 2-8 keV). This soft plasma is probably heated by supernovae, along with a small contribution from the winds of massive Wolf-Rayet (W-R) and O stars. The radiative cooling rate of the soft plasma within the inner 20 pc of the Galaxy could be balanced by 1% of the kinetic energy of one supernova every 3 × 105 yr. The hotter, kT ≈ 8 keV component is more spatially uniform, with a surface brightness of (1.5-2.6) × 10 -13 ergs cm-2 s-1 arcmin-2 (observed, 2-8 keV). The intensity of the hard plasma is correlated with that of the soft, but they are probably only indirectly related, because neither supernova remnants nor W-R/O stars are observed to produce thermal plasma hotter than kT ≈ 3 keV. Moreover, a kT ≈ 8 keV plasma would be too hot to be bound to the Galactic center and therefore would form a slow wind or fountain of plasma. The energy required to sustain such a freely expanding plasma within the inner 20 pc of the Galaxy is ∼ 1040 ergs s -1. This corresponds to the entire kinetic energy of one supernova every 3000 yr, which is unreasonably high. However, alternative explanations for the kT ≈ 8 keV diffuse emission are equally unsatisfying. The hard X-rays are unlikely to result from undetected point sources, because no known population of stellar objects is numerous enough to account for the observed surface brightness. Neither is there evidence that nonthermal mechanisms for producing the hard emission are operating, as the expected shifts in the line energies and ratios from their collisional-eqiulibrium values are not observed. We are left to conclude either that there is a significant shortcoming in our understanding of the mechanisms that heat the interstellar medium or that a population of faint (<1031 ergs s-1) hard X-ray sources that is a factor of 10 more numerous than cataclysmic variables remains to be discovered.

AB - We examine the spectrum of diffuse emission detected in the 17′ × 17′ field around Sgr A* during 625 ks of Chandra observations. The spectrum exhibits He-like and H-like lines from Si, S, Ar, Ca, and Fe that are consistent with an origin in a two-temperature plasma, as well as a prominent low-ionization Fe Ka line. The cooler, kT ≈ 0.8 keV plasma differs in surface brightness across the image in the range (0.2-1.8) × 10-13 ergs cm-2 s-1 arcmin-2 (observed, 2-8 keV). This soft plasma is probably heated by supernovae, along with a small contribution from the winds of massive Wolf-Rayet (W-R) and O stars. The radiative cooling rate of the soft plasma within the inner 20 pc of the Galaxy could be balanced by 1% of the kinetic energy of one supernova every 3 × 105 yr. The hotter, kT ≈ 8 keV component is more spatially uniform, with a surface brightness of (1.5-2.6) × 10 -13 ergs cm-2 s-1 arcmin-2 (observed, 2-8 keV). The intensity of the hard plasma is correlated with that of the soft, but they are probably only indirectly related, because neither supernova remnants nor W-R/O stars are observed to produce thermal plasma hotter than kT ≈ 3 keV. Moreover, a kT ≈ 8 keV plasma would be too hot to be bound to the Galactic center and therefore would form a slow wind or fountain of plasma. The energy required to sustain such a freely expanding plasma within the inner 20 pc of the Galaxy is ∼ 1040 ergs s -1. This corresponds to the entire kinetic energy of one supernova every 3000 yr, which is unreasonably high. However, alternative explanations for the kT ≈ 8 keV diffuse emission are equally unsatisfying. The hard X-rays are unlikely to result from undetected point sources, because no known population of stellar objects is numerous enough to account for the observed surface brightness. Neither is there evidence that nonthermal mechanisms for producing the hard emission are operating, as the expected shifts in the line energies and ratios from their collisional-eqiulibrium values are not observed. We are left to conclude either that there is a significant shortcoming in our understanding of the mechanisms that heat the interstellar medium or that a population of faint (<1031 ergs s-1) hard X-ray sources that is a factor of 10 more numerous than cataclysmic variables remains to be discovered.

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Muno MP, Baganoff FK, Bautz MW, Feigelson ED, Garmre GP, Morris MR et al. Diffuse X-ray emission in a deep Chandra mage of the galactic center. Astrophysical Journal. 2004 Sep 20;613(1 I):326-342. https://doi.org/10.1086/422865