1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

This chapter focuses on liquefaction of solids, primarily coal and biomass sources such as lignin. In a two-step process the molecular structure is broken into fragments and hydrogenated, increasing the hydrogen-to-carbon ratio and preventing retrogressive reactions. Solvents solubilize smaller molecular weight components and promote hydrogenation; catalyst improves hydrogenation. The use of high-carbon-based feeds to produce alternative fuels and value-added chemicals is discussed. Basic conversion chemistry, chemical structures of coal and lignin biomass are discussed, followed by process technologies for direct liquefaction, liquid quality, process control and modeling, advantages and limitations, and future trends. Direct liquefaction processes can overlap with pyrolysis; low-temperature pyrolysis is included because of the liquids generated.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationAdvances in Clean Hydrocarbon Fuel Processing
Subtitle of host publicationScience and Technology
PublisherElsevier Ltd
Pages105-154
Number of pages50
ISBN (Print)9781845697273
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2011

Fingerprint

Liquefaction
Biomass
Coal
Lignin
Hydrogenation
Pyrolysis
Carbon
Alternative fuels
Liquids
Molecular structure
Process control
Molecular weight
Hydrogen
Catalysts
Temperature

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Energy(all)

Cite this

Clifford, C. E., & Song, C. (2011). Direct liquefaction (DCL) processes and technology for coal and biomass conversion. In Advances in Clean Hydrocarbon Fuel Processing: Science and Technology (pp. 105-154). Elsevier Ltd. https://doi.org/10.1533/9780857093783.2.105
Clifford, Caroline Elaine ; Song, Chunshan. / Direct liquefaction (DCL) processes and technology for coal and biomass conversion. Advances in Clean Hydrocarbon Fuel Processing: Science and Technology. Elsevier Ltd, 2011. pp. 105-154
@inbook{32b6d99c32c149d59eceab3f91d1069b,
title = "Direct liquefaction (DCL) processes and technology for coal and biomass conversion",
abstract = "This chapter focuses on liquefaction of solids, primarily coal and biomass sources such as lignin. In a two-step process the molecular structure is broken into fragments and hydrogenated, increasing the hydrogen-to-carbon ratio and preventing retrogressive reactions. Solvents solubilize smaller molecular weight components and promote hydrogenation; catalyst improves hydrogenation. The use of high-carbon-based feeds to produce alternative fuels and value-added chemicals is discussed. Basic conversion chemistry, chemical structures of coal and lignin biomass are discussed, followed by process technologies for direct liquefaction, liquid quality, process control and modeling, advantages and limitations, and future trends. Direct liquefaction processes can overlap with pyrolysis; low-temperature pyrolysis is included because of the liquids generated.",
author = "Clifford, {Caroline Elaine} and Chunshan Song",
year = "2011",
month = "1",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1533/9780857093783.2.105",
language = "English (US)",
isbn = "9781845697273",
pages = "105--154",
booktitle = "Advances in Clean Hydrocarbon Fuel Processing",
publisher = "Elsevier Ltd",
address = "United Kingdom",

}

Clifford, CE & Song, C 2011, Direct liquefaction (DCL) processes and technology for coal and biomass conversion. in Advances in Clean Hydrocarbon Fuel Processing: Science and Technology. Elsevier Ltd, pp. 105-154. https://doi.org/10.1533/9780857093783.2.105

Direct liquefaction (DCL) processes and technology for coal and biomass conversion. / Clifford, Caroline Elaine; Song, Chunshan.

Advances in Clean Hydrocarbon Fuel Processing: Science and Technology. Elsevier Ltd, 2011. p. 105-154.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

TY - CHAP

T1 - Direct liquefaction (DCL) processes and technology for coal and biomass conversion

AU - Clifford, Caroline Elaine

AU - Song, Chunshan

PY - 2011/1/1

Y1 - 2011/1/1

N2 - This chapter focuses on liquefaction of solids, primarily coal and biomass sources such as lignin. In a two-step process the molecular structure is broken into fragments and hydrogenated, increasing the hydrogen-to-carbon ratio and preventing retrogressive reactions. Solvents solubilize smaller molecular weight components and promote hydrogenation; catalyst improves hydrogenation. The use of high-carbon-based feeds to produce alternative fuels and value-added chemicals is discussed. Basic conversion chemistry, chemical structures of coal and lignin biomass are discussed, followed by process technologies for direct liquefaction, liquid quality, process control and modeling, advantages and limitations, and future trends. Direct liquefaction processes can overlap with pyrolysis; low-temperature pyrolysis is included because of the liquids generated.

AB - This chapter focuses on liquefaction of solids, primarily coal and biomass sources such as lignin. In a two-step process the molecular structure is broken into fragments and hydrogenated, increasing the hydrogen-to-carbon ratio and preventing retrogressive reactions. Solvents solubilize smaller molecular weight components and promote hydrogenation; catalyst improves hydrogenation. The use of high-carbon-based feeds to produce alternative fuels and value-added chemicals is discussed. Basic conversion chemistry, chemical structures of coal and lignin biomass are discussed, followed by process technologies for direct liquefaction, liquid quality, process control and modeling, advantages and limitations, and future trends. Direct liquefaction processes can overlap with pyrolysis; low-temperature pyrolysis is included because of the liquids generated.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84903101359&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84903101359&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1533/9780857093783.2.105

DO - 10.1533/9780857093783.2.105

M3 - Chapter

SN - 9781845697273

SP - 105

EP - 154

BT - Advances in Clean Hydrocarbon Fuel Processing

PB - Elsevier Ltd

ER -

Clifford CE, Song C. Direct liquefaction (DCL) processes and technology for coal and biomass conversion. In Advances in Clean Hydrocarbon Fuel Processing: Science and Technology. Elsevier Ltd. 2011. p. 105-154 https://doi.org/10.1533/9780857093783.2.105