Direct observation of phase transformations in the simulated heat-affected zone of a 9Cr martensitic steel

Peter Mayr, Todd Palmer, John W. Elmer, Eliot D. Specht

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

10 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

An experimental test melt of a boron alloyed 9Cr-3W-3Co-V,Nb steel for high temperature applications in the thermal power generation industry was produced by vacuum induction melting. This grade of steel typically displays a homogeneous tempered martensitic microstructure in the as-received, i. e. normalised and tempered, condition. However, after welding, this microstructure is significantly altered, resulting in a loss of its desired properties. The phase transformations during simulated thermal cycles typical of those experienced in the weld heat-affected zone were directly observed by insitu X-ray diffraction experiments using synchrotron radiation. Heating rates of 10 K s-1 and 100 K s-1 up to a peak temperature of 1300 °C are investigated here. The final microstructures observed after both simulated weld thermal cycles are primarily composed of martensite with approximately 4% retained delta ferrite and 4% retained austenite, by volume. With the temporal resolution of the in-situ X-ray diffraction technique, phase transformations from tempered martensite to austenite to delta ferrite during heating and to martensite during cooling were monitored. With this technique, the evolution of the final microstructure through both heating and cooling is monitored, providing additional context to the microstructural observations.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)381-386
Number of pages6
JournalZeitschrift fuer Metallkunde/Materials Research and Advanced Techniques
Volume99
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 1 2008

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Martensitic steel
heat affected zone
Heat affected zone
phase transformations
Phase transitions
martensite
Martensite
steels
microstructure
Microstructure
Steel
austenite
Austenite
heating
Ferrite
ferrites
Welds
Cooling
cooling
Heating

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Metals and Alloys

Cite this

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abstract = "An experimental test melt of a boron alloyed 9Cr-3W-3Co-V,Nb steel for high temperature applications in the thermal power generation industry was produced by vacuum induction melting. This grade of steel typically displays a homogeneous tempered martensitic microstructure in the as-received, i. e. normalised and tempered, condition. However, after welding, this microstructure is significantly altered, resulting in a loss of its desired properties. The phase transformations during simulated thermal cycles typical of those experienced in the weld heat-affected zone were directly observed by insitu X-ray diffraction experiments using synchrotron radiation. Heating rates of 10 K s-1 and 100 K s-1 up to a peak temperature of 1300 °C are investigated here. The final microstructures observed after both simulated weld thermal cycles are primarily composed of martensite with approximately 4{\%} retained delta ferrite and 4{\%} retained austenite, by volume. With the temporal resolution of the in-situ X-ray diffraction technique, phase transformations from tempered martensite to austenite to delta ferrite during heating and to martensite during cooling were monitored. With this technique, the evolution of the final microstructure through both heating and cooling is monitored, providing additional context to the microstructural observations.",
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Direct observation of phase transformations in the simulated heat-affected zone of a 9Cr martensitic steel. / Mayr, Peter; Palmer, Todd; Elmer, John W.; Specht, Eliot D.

In: Zeitschrift fuer Metallkunde/Materials Research and Advanced Techniques, Vol. 99, No. 4, 01.04.2008, p. 381-386.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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