Discipline referrals and access to secondary level support in elementary and middle schools: Patterns across African-American, hispanic-American, and white students

Claudia G. Vincent, Tary J. Tobin, Leanne S. Hawken, Jennifer L. Frank

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

8 Scopus citations

Abstract

Given documented racial/ethnic disproportionality in disciplinary referrals and strong recommendations to base provision of secondary level supports on data, we explored whether students from various racial/ethnic groups have equitable access to secondary supports. We disaggregated discipline data from 155 elementary and 46 middle schools by student race/ethnicity and behavioral risk level to assess the extent to which different racial/ethnic groups were disproportionately represented among students at each risk level and students receiving secondary support. Outcomes indicated that Hispanic- American and White students were underrepresented among students with multiple disciplinary referrals, while African-American students were overrepresented. African-American students were over-represented among students receiving secondary support in elementary schools but were less likely to receive this support in middle schools. Across all schools, number of referrals as well as race/ethnicity emerged as statistically significant predictors of access to secondary level support. Limitations to the current investigation and recommendations for future research are provided.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)431-458
Number of pages28
JournalEducation and Treatment of Children
Volume35
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 2012

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Education
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology

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