Nanocarbons represent a broad class of materials with unique properties enabling an appreciable number of applications. As produced nanocarbon materials may include contaminants from the synthesis but more importantly, even for the best tuning of the parameters of the synthesis, they include multiple varieties of nanocarbon shapes. The specific band structure of nanocarbons leads to both the major advantages of these materials and the main challenges of their technology. The lattice of a good quality raw nanocarbon is almost defect free. Their surface is mostly chemically inert, similar to graphite, making them hydrophobic, except for edges of nanotubes or graphene flakes. Many device properties of nanocarbon materials are solely due to their geometric size. Electronics and optical applications on the other hand, rely on specific quantum behavior of charge carriers in graphene and its scrolled derivatives, specific symmetry of honeycomb lattice, chiral breaking of this symmetry due to curvature and space quantization.
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