Discovery of a Third Transiting Planet in the Kepler-47 Circumbinary System

Jerome A. Orosz, William F. Welsh, Nader Haghighipour, Billy Quarles, Donald R. Short, Sean M. Mills, Suman Satyal, Guillermo Torres, Eric Agol, Daniel C. Fabrycky, Daniel Jontof-Hutter, Gur Windmiller, Tobias W.A. Müller, Tobias C. Hinse, William D. Cochran, Michael Endl, Eric B. Ford, Tsevi Mazeh, Jack J. Lissauer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

4 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Of the nine confirmed transiting circumbinary planet systems, only Kepler-47 is known to contain more than one planet. Kepler-47 b (the "inner planet") has an orbital period of 49.5 days and a radius of about 3 R . Kepler-47 c (the "outer planet") has an orbital period of 303.2 days and a radius of about 4.7 R . Here we report the discovery of a third planet, Kepler-47 d (the "middle planet"), which has an orbital period of 187.4 days and a radius of about 7 R . The presence of the middle planet allows us to place much better constraints on the masses of all three planets, where the 1σ ranges are less than 26 M , between 7-43 M , and between 2-5 M for the inner, middle, and outer planets, respectively. The middle and outer planets have low bulk densities, with g cm-3 and ρ outer < 0.26 g cm-3 at the 1σ level. The two outer planets are "tightly packed," assuming the nominal masses, meaning no other planet could stably orbit between them. All of the orbits have low eccentricities and are nearly coplanar, disfavoring violent scattering scenarios and suggesting gentle migration in the protoplanetary disk.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number174
JournalAstronomical Journal
Volume157
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - May 1 2019

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planets
planet
orbitals
radii
orbits
protoplanetary disks
eccentricity
bulk density
scattering

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science

Cite this

Orosz, J. A., Welsh, W. F., Haghighipour, N., Quarles, B., Short, D. R., Mills, S. M., ... Lissauer, J. J. (2019). Discovery of a Third Transiting Planet in the Kepler-47 Circumbinary System. Astronomical Journal, 157(5), [174]. https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-3881/ab0ca0
Orosz, Jerome A. ; Welsh, William F. ; Haghighipour, Nader ; Quarles, Billy ; Short, Donald R. ; Mills, Sean M. ; Satyal, Suman ; Torres, Guillermo ; Agol, Eric ; Fabrycky, Daniel C. ; Jontof-Hutter, Daniel ; Windmiller, Gur ; Müller, Tobias W.A. ; Hinse, Tobias C. ; Cochran, William D. ; Endl, Michael ; Ford, Eric B. ; Mazeh, Tsevi ; Lissauer, Jack J. / Discovery of a Third Transiting Planet in the Kepler-47 Circumbinary System. In: Astronomical Journal. 2019 ; Vol. 157, No. 5.
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Orosz, JA, Welsh, WF, Haghighipour, N, Quarles, B, Short, DR, Mills, SM, Satyal, S, Torres, G, Agol, E, Fabrycky, DC, Jontof-Hutter, D, Windmiller, G, Müller, TWA, Hinse, TC, Cochran, WD, Endl, M, Ford, EB, Mazeh, T & Lissauer, JJ 2019, 'Discovery of a Third Transiting Planet in the Kepler-47 Circumbinary System', Astronomical Journal, vol. 157, no. 5, 174. https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-3881/ab0ca0

Discovery of a Third Transiting Planet in the Kepler-47 Circumbinary System. / Orosz, Jerome A.; Welsh, William F.; Haghighipour, Nader; Quarles, Billy; Short, Donald R.; Mills, Sean M.; Satyal, Suman; Torres, Guillermo; Agol, Eric; Fabrycky, Daniel C.; Jontof-Hutter, Daniel; Windmiller, Gur; Müller, Tobias W.A.; Hinse, Tobias C.; Cochran, William D.; Endl, Michael; Ford, Eric B.; Mazeh, Tsevi; Lissauer, Jack J.

In: Astronomical Journal, Vol. 157, No. 5, 174, 01.05.2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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T1 - Discovery of a Third Transiting Planet in the Kepler-47 Circumbinary System

AU - Orosz, Jerome A.

AU - Welsh, William F.

AU - Haghighipour, Nader

AU - Quarles, Billy

AU - Short, Donald R.

AU - Mills, Sean M.

AU - Satyal, Suman

AU - Torres, Guillermo

AU - Agol, Eric

AU - Fabrycky, Daniel C.

AU - Jontof-Hutter, Daniel

AU - Windmiller, Gur

AU - Müller, Tobias W.A.

AU - Hinse, Tobias C.

AU - Cochran, William D.

AU - Endl, Michael

AU - Ford, Eric B.

AU - Mazeh, Tsevi

AU - Lissauer, Jack J.

PY - 2019/5/1

Y1 - 2019/5/1

N2 - Of the nine confirmed transiting circumbinary planet systems, only Kepler-47 is known to contain more than one planet. Kepler-47 b (the "inner planet") has an orbital period of 49.5 days and a radius of about 3 R ⊕. Kepler-47 c (the "outer planet") has an orbital period of 303.2 days and a radius of about 4.7 R ⊕. Here we report the discovery of a third planet, Kepler-47 d (the "middle planet"), which has an orbital period of 187.4 days and a radius of about 7 R ⊕. The presence of the middle planet allows us to place much better constraints on the masses of all three planets, where the 1σ ranges are less than 26 M ⊕, between 7-43 M ⊕, and between 2-5 M ⊕ for the inner, middle, and outer planets, respectively. The middle and outer planets have low bulk densities, with g cm-3 and ρ outer < 0.26 g cm-3 at the 1σ level. The two outer planets are "tightly packed," assuming the nominal masses, meaning no other planet could stably orbit between them. All of the orbits have low eccentricities and are nearly coplanar, disfavoring violent scattering scenarios and suggesting gentle migration in the protoplanetary disk.

AB - Of the nine confirmed transiting circumbinary planet systems, only Kepler-47 is known to contain more than one planet. Kepler-47 b (the "inner planet") has an orbital period of 49.5 days and a radius of about 3 R ⊕. Kepler-47 c (the "outer planet") has an orbital period of 303.2 days and a radius of about 4.7 R ⊕. Here we report the discovery of a third planet, Kepler-47 d (the "middle planet"), which has an orbital period of 187.4 days and a radius of about 7 R ⊕. The presence of the middle planet allows us to place much better constraints on the masses of all three planets, where the 1σ ranges are less than 26 M ⊕, between 7-43 M ⊕, and between 2-5 M ⊕ for the inner, middle, and outer planets, respectively. The middle and outer planets have low bulk densities, with g cm-3 and ρ outer < 0.26 g cm-3 at the 1σ level. The two outer planets are "tightly packed," assuming the nominal masses, meaning no other planet could stably orbit between them. All of the orbits have low eccentricities and are nearly coplanar, disfavoring violent scattering scenarios and suggesting gentle migration in the protoplanetary disk.

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Orosz JA, Welsh WF, Haghighipour N, Quarles B, Short DR, Mills SM et al. Discovery of a Third Transiting Planet in the Kepler-47 Circumbinary System. Astronomical Journal. 2019 May 1;157(5). 174. https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-3881/ab0ca0