The hierarchical nature of additively manufactured materials necessitates a multimodal approach for quantifying microstructural features and corresponding chemical heterogeneities that ultimately impact their properties and performance. In laser powder-bed fusion (L-PBF) 316L stainless steel, corrosion behavior has been discussed in the context of chemical heterogeneities formed in the presence of these hierarchical microstructures. Here, we employ a suite of advanced synchrotron x-ray techniques and correlative transmission electron microscopy for the analysis of microstructure and chemical heterogeneities in L-PBF 316L as a function of printing speed. Our findings reveal an appreciable dislocation density consistent with the formation of a cellular dislocation microstructure in L-PBF 316L, which is correlated to spatial variations in the local Cr concentration and the formation of complex Mn7C3 nanoinclusions. Cyclic voltammetry experiments reveal that relative to wrought 316L, the printed samples exhibit either a comparable or marginally reduced susceptibility to uniform corrosion but with an increased affinity for pitting particularly in the samples printed at the highest speed with the largest dislocation density. Given the spatial correlations between regions of high dislocation density and the formation of chemical heterogeneities known to degrade corrosion performance, our findings demonstrate the impact of the microstructural defect state and its variation with printing speed on the resistance of L-PBF 316L to uniform and localized corrosion.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Biomedical Engineering
- Materials Science(all)
- Engineering (miscellaneous)
- Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering