Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous environmental carcinogens. PAHs are classified into bay and fjord region compounds according to structural differences in the molecule region where enzymatic epoxidation occurs. Dibenzo[a,l]pyrene (DB[a,l]P), one of the fjord region compounds, has been demonstrated to be the most carcinogenic PAH known to date. DB[a,l]P is activated to fjord region (+)-syn and (-)-anti-11,12-dihydroxy-13,14-epoxy-11, 12,13,14-tetrahydrodibenzo-[a,l]pyrene (DB[a,l]PDE) metabolites. In this study, we analyzed mutagenesis induced by (+)-syn- and (-)-anti-DB[a,l]PDE at the cII transgene in Big-Blue mouse cells. The mutant frequency of untreated cells (background level) was 6.53 × 10-5. This level increased 3.7-fold for 20 nmol/L, 5.3-fold for 50 nmol/L, and 7.9-fold for 100 nmol/L (+)-syn-DB[a,l]PDE, respectively. In the case of (-)-anti-DB[a,l]PDE it increased 4.5-fold for 20 nmol/L, 6.7-fold for 50 nmol/L, and 10.6-fold for 100 nmol/L, respectively, indicating that (-)-anti-DB[a,l]PDE is slightly more mutagenic than (+)-syn-DB[a,l]PDE. The mutational spectra of (+)-syn- and (-)-anti-DB[a,l]-PDE were quite similar except for several hotspots, specific for either (+)-syn-DB[a,l]PDE or (-)-anti-DB[a,l]PDE. The most frequently induced mutations were A to T transversions, which were 43.9% for (+)-syn- and 38.8% for (-)-anti-DB[a,l]PDE. In addition, G to T transversions were induced significantly, at frequencies of 18.5% by (+)-syn- and 18.1% by (-)-anti-DB[a,l]PDE. Using UvrABC cleavage and ligation-mediated PCR or the terminal transferase-dependent PCR method, we have determined DB[a,l]PDE-DNA adduct formation sites and repair rates in carcinogen-exposed cells. The mutation hotspots coincided with sites of strong adduct formation, but not all of the adduct hotspots were mutational hotspots. Slow adduct removal occurred for both (+)-syn- and (-)-anti-DB[a,l]PDE adducts over a time period of up to 72 hours. The data suggest that, although the (-)-anti-isomer is slightly more mutagenic, DNA adducts of both DB[a,l]PDE stereoisomers may have similar biological properties. We discuss the implications of these findings for human cancer mutagenesis.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Cancer Research