The primary purpose of this quantitative synthesis of single-subject research was to investigate the relative effectiveness of function-based and non-function-based behavioral interventions for students diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. In addition, associations between various participant, assessment, and intervention characteristics were investigated. Eighty-two studies incorporating a total of 168 participants were included. Because no single effect size metric has garnered absolute support to date, three different effect size metrics were calculated: the standard mean difference, percent exceeding the median baseline phase, and improvement rate difference. Overall, function-based interventions were associated with significantly larger effects than non-function-based interventions. Interventions based on the functional analysis manipulations were also associated with larger effects. Limitations, directions for future research, and implications for practice are discussed.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Developmental and Educational Psychology